Dietary Quality and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in US Asian Indian Populations
MetadataShow full item record
Asian Indians (AIs) have Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) at extraordinarily high rates, and it is associated with higher central adiposity, lower lean muscle mass to fat ratios and insulin resistance. Associations between diabetes status and dietary quality, physical activity, acculturation and demographic characteristics were investigated in a convenience sample of older Gujaratis residing in Maryland. Diagnostic cut-offs, acculturation, physical activity and dietary assessment tools used were validated for South Asian populations. Results showed that pre-diabetics and diabetics had lower diet quality than non-diabetics, and anthropometric measurements except BMI varied significantly by diabetes status. Vegetarians consumed less protein and fat than non-vegetarians. Most participants self-identified as bicultural, but Asian (traditional) values were associated with lower dietary quality. Females were universally responsible for cooking, suggesting control over dietary consumption that could impact diabetes status. Evidence-based education with a focus on diet quality could improve management of T2DM in this high-risk population.