Security and Energy Efficiency in Resource-Constrained Wireless Multi-hop Networks
Baras, John S
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In recent decades, there has been a huge improvement and interest from the research community in wireless multi-hop networks. Such networks have widespread applications in civil, commercial and military applications. Paradigms of this type of networks that are critical for many aspects of human lives are mobile ad-hoc networks, sensor networks, which are used for monitoring buildings and large agricultural areas, and vehicular networks with applications in traffic monitoring and regulation. Internet of Things (IoT) is also envisioned as a multi-hop network consisting of small interconnected devices, called ``things", such as smart meters, smart traffic lights, thermostats etc. Wireless multi-hop networks suffer from resource constraints, because all the devices have limited battery, computational power and memory. Battery level of these devices should be preserved in order to ensure reliability and communication across the network. In addition, these devices are not a priori designed to defend against sophisticated adversaries, which may be deployed across the network in order to disrupt network operation. In addition, the distributed nature of this type of networks introduces another limitation to protocol performance in the presence of adversaries. Hence, the inherit nature of this type of networks poses severe limitations on designing and optimizing protocols and network operations. In this dissertation, we focus on proposing novel techniques for designing more resilient protocols to attackers and more energy efficient protocols. In the first part of the dissertation, we investigate the scenario of multiple adversaries deployed across the network, which reduce significantly the network performance. We adopt a component-based and a cross-layer view of network protocols to make protocols secure and resilient to attacks and to utilize our techniques across existing network protocols. We use the notion of trust between network entities to propose lightweight defense mechanisms, which also satisfy performance requirements. Using cryptographic primitives in our network scenario can introduce significant computational overhead. In addition, behavioral aspects of entities are not captured by cryptographic primitives. Hence, trust metrics provide an efficient security metric in these scenarios, which can be utilized to introduce lightweight defense mechanisms applicable to deployed network protocols. In the second part of the dissertation, we focus on energy efficiency considerations in this type of networks. Our motivation for this work is to extend network lifetime, but at the same time maintain critical performance requirements. We propose a distributed sleep management framework for heterogeneous machine-to-machine networks and two novel energy efficient metrics. This framework and the routing metrics are integrated into existing routing protocols for machine-to-machine networks. We demonstrate the efficiency of our approach in terms of increasing network lifetime and maintaining packet delivery ratio. Furthermore, we propose a novel multi-metric energy efficient routing protocol for dynamic networks (i.e. mobile ad-hoc networks) and illustrate its performance in terms of network lifetime. Finally, we investigate the energy-aware sensor coverage problem and we propose a novel game theoretic approach to capture the tradeoff between sensor coverage efficiency and energy consumption.