EFFECTS OF EXTERNAL PRESSURE ON SOLID STATE DIFFUSION OF LITHIUM IN LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES
Williard, Nicholas Dane
MetadataShow full item record
Electrochemical-mechanical effects in lithium-ion batteries refer to the phenomena that give way to the piezo-electrochemical properties observed during intercalation of lithium into lithium-ion battery electrodes. By applying perturbations to the external pressure of a lithium-ion battery, the dynamics of lithium intercalation, in particular the diffusion rate of lithium-ions onto and out of battery electrodes, can be studied with respect to the open-circuit potential and the applied hydrostatic pressure. In this study, commercial thin film batteries were subjected to tests in a low-pressure chamber and in a dynamic materials analyzer simulating hydrostatic pressures between 0 and 115 KPa. Under each hydrostatic pressure condition, galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) was performed to measure and correlate lithium diffusivity to battery strain, open-circuit potential, and applied hydrostatic force. From the data a model was developed for lithium diffusivity as a function of open circuit potential and hydrostatic pressure. The implications of this work extend from the use of lithiated graphite for energy harvesting and actuation to policy and regulations for how batteries should be safely transported. To provide some insight into how this work can be applied to policy actions, current international regulations regarding the air transport of lithium-ion batteries are critically reviewed. The pre-shipping tests are outlined and evaluated to assess their ability to fully mitigate risks during battery transport. In particular, the guidelines for shipping second-use batteries are considered. Because the electrochemical state of previously used batteries is inherently different from that of new batteries, additional considerations must be made to evaluate these types of cells. Additional tests are suggested that evaluate the risks of second-use batteries, which may or may not contain incipient faults. Finally, this work is extended to supercapacitors through the development of a model to predict the oxidation of functional groups on the surface of graphite electrodes with respect to operational temperature and voltage. This model is used to predict the operational life of supercapacitors and validates the model on accelerated testing data. The final results are compared to previous models proposed in literature.