# SECURITY UNDER IMPERFECT CHANNEL KNOWLEDGE IN WIRELESS NETWORKS

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2016##### Author

Mukherjee, Pritam

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Ulukus, Sennur

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This dissertation studies physical layer security in wireless networks using an information theoretic framework. The central theme of this work is exploring the effect of delayed or no channel state information (CSI) on physical layer security in various wireless channel models.
We begin with the fast Rayleigh fading wiretap channel, over which a legitimate transmitter wishes to have secure communication with a legitimate receiver in the presence of an eavesdropper. Subject to an average power constraint on the input, and with no CSI at any user, we show that the input distribution that achieves the secrecy capacity for this wiretap channel is discrete with a finite number of mass points. This enables us to evaluate the exact secrecy capacity of this channel numerically.
Next, we consider multi-user models, specifically, the wiretap channel with M helpers, the K-user multiple access wiretap channel, and the K-user interference channel with an external eavesdropper, when no eavesdropper's CSI is available at the transmitters. In each case, we establish the optimal sum secure degrees of freedom (s.d.o.f.) by providing achievable schemes and matching converses. We show that the unavailability of the eavesdropper's CSI at the transmitter (CSIT) does not reduce the s.d.o.f. of the wiretap channel with helpers. However, there is loss in s.d.o.f. for both the multiple access wiretap channel and the interference channel with an external eavesdropper. In particular, we show that in the absence of eavesdropper's CSIT, the K-user multiple access wiretap channel reduces to a wiretap channel with (K-1) helpers from a sum s.d.o.f. perspective, and the optimal sum s.d.o.f. reduces from K(K-1)/(K(K-1)+1) to (K-1)/K. For the interference channel with an external eavesdropper, the optimal sum s.d.o.f. decreases from K(K-1)/(2K-1) to (K-1)/2 in the absence of the eavesdropper's CSIT. Our results show that the lack of eavesdropper's CSIT does not have a significant impact on the optimal s.d.o.f. for any of the three channel models, especially when the number of users is large.
We, then, study multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) multi-user channels. We begin with the case when full CSIT is available. We consider a two-user MIMO multiple access wiretap channel with N antennas at each transmitter, N antennas at the legitimate receiver, and K antennas at the eavesdropper. We determine the optimal sum s.d.o.f. for this model for all values of N and K. We subdivide our problem into several regimes based on the values of N and K, and provide achievable schemes based on real and vector space alignment techniques for fixed and fading channel gains, respectively. To prove the optimality of the achievable schemes, we provide matching converses for each regime. Our results show how the number of eavesdropper antennas affects the optimal sum s.d.o.f. of the multiple access wiretap channel.
In line with the theme of this dissertation, we next consider the MIMO wiretap channel with one helper and the two-user MIMO multiple access channel when no eavesdropper CSIT is available. In each case, the eavesdropper has K antennas while the remaining terminals have N antennas. We determine the optimal sum s.d.o.f. for each channel model for the regime K<= N, and we show that in this regime, the multiple access wiretap channel reduces to the wiretap channel with a helper in the absence of eavesdropper CSIT. For the regime N<= K<= 2N, we obtain the optimal linear s.d.o.f., and show that the multiple access wiretap channel and the wiretap channel with a helper have the same optimal s.d.o.f. when restricted to linear encoding strategies. In the absence of any such restrictions, we provide an upper bound for the sum s.d.o.f. of the multiple access wiretap channel in the regime N<= K<= 2N. Our results show that unlike in the single-input single-output (SISO) case, there is loss of s.d.o.f. for even the wiretap channel with a helper due to lack of eavesdropper CSIT, when K>= N.
Finally, we explore the effect of delayed CSIT on physical layer security. In particular, we consider the two user multiple-input single-output (MISO) broadcast channel with confidential messages, in which the nature of CSIT from each user can be of the form I_{i}, i=1,2 where I_{i} belongs to {P, D,N}, and the forms P, D and N correspond to perfect and instantaneous, completely delayed, and no CSIT, respectively. Thus, the overall CSIT can be any of nine possible states corresponding to all possible values of (I_{1},I_{2}). While the optimal sum s.d.o.f. in the homogeneous settings corresponding to I_1=I_2 are already known in the literature, we focus on the heterogeneous settings where I_1 is not equal to I_2 and establish the optimal s.d.o.f. region in each case. We further consider the case where the CSIT state varies with time. Each state (I_1,I_2) can then occur for \lambda_{I_{1}I_{2}} fraction of the total duration. We determine the s.d.o.f. region of the MISO broadcast channel with confidential messages under such an alternating CSIT setting, with a mild symmetry assumption, where \lambda_{I_{1} I_{2}}=\lambda_{I_{2}I_{1}}.

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