Ceramic Materials Development for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IT-SOFC)
Wachsman, Eric D
MetadataShow full item record
Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is an electrochemical device that converts chemical energy into electric power with high efficiency. Traditional SOFC has its disadvantages, such as redox cycling instability and carbon deposition while using hydrocarbon fuels. It is because traditional SOFC uses Ni-cermet as anode. In order to solve these problems, ceramic anode is a good candidate to replace Ni. However, the conductivity of most ceramic anode materials are much lower than Ni metal, and it introduces high ohmic resistance. How to increase the conductivity is a hot topic in this research field. Based on our proposed mechanism, several types of ceramic materials have been developed. Vanadium doped perovskite, Sr1-x/2VxTi1-xO3 (SVT) and Sr0.2Na0.8Nb1-xVxO3 (SNNV), achieved the conductivity as high as 300 S*cm-1 in hydrogen, without any high temperature reduction. GDC electrolyte supported cell was fabricated with Sr0.2Na0.8Nb0.9V0.1O3 and the performance was measured in hydrogen and methane respectively. Due to vanadium’s intrinsic problems, the anode supported cell is not easy. Fe doped double perovskite Sr2CoMoO6 (SFCM) was also developed. By carefully doping Fe, the conductivity was improved over one magnitude, without any vigorous reducing conditions. SFCM anode supported cell was successfully fabricated with GDC as the electrolyte. By impregnating Ni-GDC nano particles into the anode, the cell can be operated at lower temperatures while having higher performance than the traditional Ni-cermet cells. Meanwhile, this SFCM anode supported SOFC has long term stability in the reformate containing methane. During the anode development, cathode improvement caused by a thin Co-GDC layer was observed. By adding this Co-GDC layer between the electrolyte and the cathode, the interfacial resistance decreases due to fast oxygen ion transport. This mechanism was confirmed via isotope exchange. This Co-GDC layer works with multiple kinds of cathodes and the modified cell’s performance is 3 times as the traditional Ni-GDC cell. With this new method, lowering the SOFC operation temperature is feasible.