Restoration and Domain Adaptation for Unconstrained Face Recognition
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Face recognition (FR) has received great attention and tremendous progress has been made during the past two decades. While FR at close range under controlled acquisition conditions has achieved a high level of performance, FR at a distance under unconstrained environment remains a largely unsolved problem. This is because images collected from a distance usually suffer from blur, poor illumination, pose variation etc. In this dissertation, we present models and algorithms to compensate for these variations to improve the performance for FR at a distance. Blur is a common factor contributing to the degradation of images collected from a distance, e.g., defocus blur due to long range acquisition, motion blur due to movement of subjects. For this purpose, we study the image deconvolution problem. This is an ill-posed problem, and solutions are usually obtained by exploiting prior information of desired output image to reduce ambiguity, typically through the Bayesian framework. In this dissertation, we consider the role of an example driven manifold prior to address the deconvolution problem. Specifically, we incorporate unlabeled image data of the object class in the form of a patch manifold to effectively regularize the inverse problem. We propose both parametric and non-parametric approaches to implicitly estimate the manifold prior from the given unlabeled data. Extensive experiments show that our method performs better than many competitive image deconvolution methods. More often, variations from the collected images at a distance are difficult to address through physical models of individual degradations. For this problem, we utilize domain adaptation methods to adapt recognition systems to the test data. Domain adaptation addresses the problem where data instances of a source domain have different distributions from that of a target domain. We focus on the unsupervised domain adaptation problem where labeled data are not available in the target domain. We propose to interpolate subspaces through dictionary learning to link the source and target domains. These subspaces are able to capture the intrinsic domain shift and form a shared feature representation for cross domain recognition. Experimental results on publicly available datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for face recognition across pose, blur and illumination variations, and cross dataset object classification. Most existing domain adaptation methods assume homogeneous source domain which is usually modeled by a single subspace. Yet in practice, oftentimes we are given mixed source data with different inner characteristics. Modeling these source data as a single domain would potentially deteriorate the adaptation performance, as the adaptation procedure needs to account for the large within class variations in the source domain. For this problem, we propose two approaches to mitigate the heterogeneity in source data. We first present an approach for selecting a subset of source samples which is more similar to the target domain to avoid negative knowledge transfer. We then consider the scenario that the heterogenous source data are due to multiple latent domains. For this purpose, we derive a domain clustering framework to recover the latent domains for improved adaptation. Moreover, we formulate submodular objective functions which can be solved by an efficient greedy method. Experimental results show that our approaches compare favorably with the state-of-the-art.