Kinesiology Research Works

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 14
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    Unveiling the neuromechanical mechanisms underlying the synergistic interactions in human sensorimotor system
    (Springer Nature, 2021-01-08) Honarvar, S.; Kim, C.; Diaz-Mercado, Y.; Koh, K.; Kwon, H. J.; Kiemel, T.; Caminita, M.; Hahn, J. O.; Shim, J. K.
    Motor synergies are neural organizations of a set of redundant motor effectors that interact with one another to compensate for each other’s error and ensure the stabilization of a performance variable. Recent studies have demonstrated that central nervous system synergistically coordinates its numerous motor effectors through Bayesian multi-sensory integration. Deficiency in sensory synergy weakens the synergistic interaction between the motor effectors. Here, we scrutinize the neuromechanical mechanism underlying this phenomenon through spectral analysis and modeling. We validate our model-generated results using experimental data reported in the literature collected from participants performing a finger force production task with and without tactile feedback (manipulated through injection of anesthetic in fingers). Spectral analysis reveals that the error compensation feature of synergies occurs only at low frequencies. Modeling suggests that the neurophysiological structures involving short-latency back-coupling loops similar to the well-known Renshaw cells explain the deterioration of synergy due to sensory deprivation.
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    The relationship between ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) genotype and motor unit physiology: preliminary studies
    (Springer Nature, 2005-09-23) Conwit, Robin A; Ling, Shari; Roth, Stephen; Stashuk, Daniel; Hurley, Ben; Ferrell, Robert; Metter, E Jeffrey
    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is important for neuronal and muscle development, and genetic variation in the CNTF gene has been associated with muscle strength. The effect of CNTF on nerve development suggests that CNTF genotype may be associated with force production via its influence on motor unit size and firing patterns. The purpose of this study is to examine whether CNTF genotype differentially affects motor unit activation in the vastus medialis with increasing isometric force during knee extension. Sixty-nine healthy subjects were genotyped for the presence of the G and A (null) alleles in the CNTF gene (n = 57 G/G, 12 G/A). They were tested using a dynamometer during submaximal isometric knee extension contractions that were from 10–50% of their maximal strength. During the contractions, the vastus medialis was studied using surface and intramuscular electromyography with spiked triggered averaging to assess surface-detected motor unit potential (SMUP) area and mean firing rates (mFR) from identified motor units. CNTF genotyping was performed using standard PCR techniques from DNA obtained from leucocytes of whole blood samples. The CNTF G/A genotype was associated with smaller SMUP area motor units and lower mFR at higher force levels, and fewer but larger units at lower force levels than G/G homozygotes. The two groups used motor units with different size and activation characteristics with increasing force generation. While G/G subjects tended to utilize larger motor units with increasing force, G/A subjects showed relatively less increase in size by using relatively larger units at lower force levels. At higher force levels, G/A subjects were able to generate more force per motor unit size suggesting more efficient motor unit function with increasing muscle force. Differential motor unit responses were observed between CNTF genotypes at force levels utilized in daily activities.
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    Does visual feedback during walking result in similar improvements in trunk control for young and older healthy adults?
    (Springer Nature, 2013-11-26) Anson, Eric; Rosenberg, Russell; Agada, Peter; Kiemel, Tim; Jeka, John
    Most current applications of visual feedback to improve postural control are limited to a fixed base of support and produce mixed results regarding improved postural control and transfer to functional tasks. Currently there are few options available to provide visual feedback regarding trunk motion while walking. We have developed a low cost platform to provide visual feedback of trunk motion during walking. Here we investigated whether augmented visual position feedback would reduce trunk movement variability in both young and older healthy adults. The subjects who participated were 10 young and 10 older adults. Subjects walked on a treadmill under conditions of visual position feedback and no feedback. The visual feedback consisted of anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) position of the subject’s trunk during treadmill walking. Fourier transforms of the AP and ML trunk kinematics were used to calculate power spectral densities which were integrated as frequency bins “below the gait cycle” and “gait cycle and above” for analysis purposes. Visual feedback reduced movement power at very low frequencies for lumbar and neck translation but not trunk angle in both age groups. At very low frequencies of body movement, older adults had equivalent levels of movement variability with feedback as young adults without feedback. Lower variability was specific to translational (not angular) trunk movement. Visual feedback did not affect any of the measured lower extremity gait pattern characteristics of either group, suggesting that changes were not invoked by a different gait pattern. Reduced translational variability while walking on the treadmill reflects more precise control maintaining a central position on the treadmill. Such feedback may provide an important technique to augment rehabilitation to minimize body translation while walking. Individuals with poor balance during walking may benefit from this type of training to enhance path consistency during over-ground locomotion.
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    Mitochondrial oxygen consumption deficits in skeletal muscle isolated from an Alzheimer’s disease-relevant murine model
    (Springer Nature, 2014-02-13) Schuh, Rosemary A; Jackson, Kathryn C; Schlappal, Anna E; Spangenburg, Espen E; Ward, Christopher W; Park, Ji H; Dugger, Natalie; Shi, Guo Li; Fishman, Paul S
    Age is considered a primary risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is also now well understood that mitochondrial function declines with age. Mitochondrial deficits have been previously assessed in brain from both human autopsy tissue and disease-relevant transgenic mice. Recently it has been recognized that abnormalities of muscle may be an intrinsic aspect of AD and might contribute to the pathophysiology. However, deficits in mitochondrial function have yet to be clearly assessed in tissues outside the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we utilized a well-characterized AD-relevant transgenic mouse strain to assess mitochondrial respiratory deficits in both brain and muscle. In addition to mitochondrial function, we assessed levels of transgene-derived amyloid precursor protein (APP) in homogenates isolated from brain and muscle of these AD-relevant animals. We now demonstrate that skeletal muscles isolated from these animals have differential levels of mutant full-length APP depending on muscle type. Additionally, isolated muscle fibers from young transgenic mice (3 months) have significantly decreased maximal mitochondrial oxygen consumption capacity compared to non-transgenic, age-matched mice, with similar deficits to those previously described in brain. This is the first study to directly examine mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle from an AD-relevant transgenic murine model. As with brain, these deficits in muscle are an early event, occurring prior to appearance of amyloid plaques.
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    The SH3 and cysteine-rich domain 3 (Stac3) gene is important to growth, fiber composition, and calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in postnatal skeletal muscle
    (Springer Nature, 2016-04-11) Cong, Xiaofei; Doering, Jonathan; Mazala, Davi A. G.; Chin, Eva R.; Grange, Robert W.; Jiang, Honglin
    The SH3 and cysteine-rich domain 3 (Stac3) gene is specifically expressed in the skeletal muscle. Stac3 knockout mice die perinatally. In this study, we determined the potential role of Stac3 in postnatal skeletal muscle growth, fiber composition, and contraction by generating conditional Stac3 knockout mice. We disrupted the Stac3 gene in 4-week-old male mice using the Flp-FRT and tamoxifen-inducible Cre-loxP systems. RT-qPCR and western blotting analyses of the limb muscles of target mice indicated that nearly all Stac3 mRNA and more than 70 % of STAC3 protein were deleted 4 weeks after tamoxifen injection. Postnatal Stac3 deletion inhibited body and limb muscle mass gains. Histological staining and gene expression analyses revealed that postnatal Stac3 deletion decreased the size of myofibers and increased the percentage of myofibers containing centralized nuclei, with no effect on the total myofiber number. Grip strength and grip time tests indicated that postnatal Stac3 deletion decreased limb muscle strength in mice. Muscle contractile tests revealed that postnatal Stac3 deletion reduced electrostimulation-induced but not the ryanodine receptor agonist caffeine-induced maximal force output in the limb muscles. Calcium imaging analysis of single flexor digitorum brevis myofibers indicated that postnatal Stac3 deletion reduced electrostimulation- but not caffeine-induced calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This study demonstrates that STAC3 is important to myofiber hypertrophy, myofiber-type composition, contraction, and excitation-induced calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the postnatal skeletal muscle.