In Vitro Measures of MDR-Transporter Function and Whole-Hive Exposure Dynamics Using Fluorescent Dyes
Kunkel, Grace R.
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We need to study Apis mellifera both in vivo and ex vivo to better understand honey bee biology. In vivo synergism of chemicals can occur when xenobiotic transporters are inhibited by one chemical, allowing a second chemical to accumulate and become toxic. I have conducted assays between 2010 and 2013 that demonstrated RhB dye- a xenobiotic transporter substrate, is fed in the presence of the xenobiotic inhibitor verapamil, it is found in higher levels in the hemolymph of the Apis mellifera Two types of bee food combined with two dyes were tested in 2012 for the impact of food type, and the impact of dye type on the fate of the dye in a Apis mellifera hive. Slightly hydrophobic RhB and slightly hydrophilic UrO were used. Dyed syrup persisted longer in hives than dyed pollen patties, and dyes did not spread uniformly throughout the hive.