METABOLIC CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH ANDROGEN INDEPENDENT GROWTH IN A MOUSE MODEL OF PROSTATE CANCER
Martin, Philip Lloyd
PTEN and TP53 loss are common molecular alterations in aggressive prostate cancer that progresses to castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). PTEN/TP53 loss contributes to regulation of self-renewal and differentiation in prostate progenitor cells, the presumptive tumor and metastasis initiating cells for prostate cancer. TP53 plays an important role in regulating normal cellular metabolism, and loss of function is responsible for metabolic alterations in tumor cells, including increased aerobic glycolysis. We use a novel model of Pten/Tp53 deleted prostate cancer to investigate properties of tumor and metastasis initiating cells, and metabolic alterations that contribute to the evolution of CRPC. We employed a genetically engineered mouse model of Pten-/-Tp53-/- prostate cancer to develop an orthotopic model derived from a clonal cell line from the parental heterogeneous prostate carcinoma. We used histopathology and immunohistochemistry to characterize the orthotopic primary tumors and metastases. We performed metabolomic screening followed by focused analysis of HK II enzyme levels, activity, and cellular distribution in androgen replete and androgen deprived tumors. We also compared HK II levels in primary and metastatic human prostate cancer. Tumor heterogeneity was due to transformation of tumor and metastasis initiating cells with biphenotypic potential capable of basal and luminal differentiation. There was epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cells of the luminal lineage. The model was capable of androgen independent growth, which influenced the differentiation of metastasis initiating cells. CRPC had increased reliance on glycolysis with increased cytoplasmic and mitochondrial-associated HK II. These metabolic adaptations afforded CRPC increased ability to withstand metabolic stress. HK II levels in human metastases were markedly increased compared to primary tumors. Pten/Tp53 loss in prostate cancer contributes to lineage plasticity in both tumor and metastasis initiating cells, contributing to heterogeneity observed in primary tumors and metastases. Increased glycolysis due to increased total and mitochondrial HK II is a metabolic adaptation that contributes to the evolution of aggressive disease, with progression to androgen independence, providing increased energy and carbon precursors for anabolic processes. Mitochondrial bound HK II blocks apoptosis and contributes to survival in the androgen deprived environment. Targeting this metabolic adaptation may provide improved treatment for this deadly disease.