QUANTUM MANY-BODY PHENOMENA IN ULTRA-COLD ATOMS IN OPTICAL LATTICES
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Two models are discussed here to illustrate the quantum many-body phenomena in mixtures of ultra-cold atoms in optical lattices. The first model describes a mixture of two species of bosonic atoms of equal masses in optical lattices and the second describes a mixture of heavy bosonic atoms and light fermionic atoms in optical lattices. For both models, we assume the trap is present and use parameters typical in experiment. For the first model, the discussion is aimed at providing a thorough description of the collective behavior of the binary mixture in various interaction regions, with emphasis on two many-body phenomena, pairing and anti-pairing, as a result of the inter-species interaction. The pairing leads to a new type of superfluid order, called the paired superfluid (PSF) and the anti-pairing leads to another type of superfluid order, called the counter-flow superfluid (CFSF). In addition, we discuss the coexistence of charge density wave order with the three superfluid orders in the strong interaction region. We use both Luttinger liquid theory and the time evolving block decimation (TEBD) method to study this model in one dimension. The discussion is organized in three parts: the phase diagram and the correlation functions; the noise correlation functions; and the transport properties. Two phase diagrams are constructed to map the different orders in the parameter space. The correlation functions, include noise correlations, are carefully examined for the determination of the orders and for possible detection methods. In the end, the transport properties of the PSF and CFSF orders are studied through the dipole oscillation induced by trap displacement. For the second model, examining a mixture of heavy bosons and light fermions, the discussion is oriented toward determining the thermal properties of the mixture for attractive inter-species interactions. This work is motivated by experiments creating artificial molecules through optical and magnetic control of ultra-cold atoms. We use the strong coupling (SC) expansion method to evaluate the density profile, the onsite inter-species correlations, the density fluctuations and the entropy per particle. Analytical expressions are derived for all the quantities above as well as the partition function. To benchmark the accuracy, the SC calculations are compared with inhomogeneous dynamical mean field theory (IDMFT) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. From the calculations, we find that 1) the efficiency of creating pre-formed molecules is significantly increased by confining the mixtures onto optical lattices; 2) the temperature of the mixtures in optical lattices can be reliably estimated through the density gradient and the density fluctuations.