Efficient Spectrum Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Jones, Leo Henry
Baecher, Gregory B
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The successful deployment of advanced wireless network applications for defense, homeland security, and public safety depends on the availability of relatively interference-free spectrum. Setup and maintenance of mobile networks for military and civilian first-response units often requires temporary allocation of spectrum resources for operations of finite, but uncertain, duration. As currently practiced, this is a very labor-intensive process with direct parallels to project management. Given the wide range of real-time local variation in propagation conditions, spatial distribution of nodes, and evolving technical and mission priorities current human-in-the loop conflict resolution approaches seem untenable. If the conventional radio regulatory structure is strictly adhered to, demand for spectrum will soon exceed supply. Software defined radio is one technology with potential to exploit local inefficiencies in spectrum usage, but questions regarding the management of such network have persisted for years. This dissertation examines a real-time spectrum distribution approach that is based on principles of economic utility and equilibrium among multiple competitors for limited goods in a free market. The spectrum distribution problem may be viewed as a special case of multi-objective optimization of a constrained resource. A computer simulation was developed to create hundreds of cases of local spectrum crowding, to which simultaneous perturbation simulated annealing (SPSA) was applied as a nominal optimization algorithm. Two control architectures were modeled for comparison, one requiring a local monitoring infrastructure and coordination ("top down") the other more market based ("bottom up"). The analysis described herein indicates that in both cases "hands-off" local spectrum management by trusted algorithms is not only feasible, but that conditions of entry for new networks may be determined a priori, with a degree of confidence described by relatively simple algebraic formulas.