Sparse and Redundant Representations for Inverse Problems and Recognition
Patel, Vishal M.
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Sparse and redundant representation of data enables the description of signals as linear combinations of a few atoms from a dictionary. In this dissertation, we study applications of sparse and redundant representations in inverse problems and object recognition. Furthermore, we propose two novel imaging modalities based on the recently introduced theory of Compressed Sensing (CS). This dissertation consists of four major parts. In the first part of the dissertation, we study a new type of deconvolution algorithm that is based on estimating the image from a shearlet decomposition. Shearlets provide a multi-directional and multi-scale decomposition that has been mathematically shown to represent distributed discontinuities such as edges better than traditional wavelets. We develop a deconvolution algorithm that allows for the approximation inversion operator to be controlled on a multi-scale and multi-directional basis. Furthermore, we develop a method for the automatic determination of the threshold values for the noise shrinkage for each scale and direction without explicit knowledge of the noise variance using a generalized cross validation method. In the second part of the dissertation, we study a reconstruction method that recovers highly undersampled images assumed to have a sparse representation in a gradient domain by using partial measurement samples that are collected in the Fourier domain. Our method makes use of a robust generalized Poisson solver that greatly aids in achieving a significantly improved performance over similar proposed methods. We will demonstrate by experiments that this new technique is more flexible to work with either random or restricted sampling scenarios better than its competitors. In the third part of the dissertation, we introduce a novel Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging modality which can provide a high resolution map of the spatial distribution of targets and terrain using a significantly reduced number of needed transmitted and/or received electromagnetic waveforms. We demonstrate that this new imaging scheme, requires no new hardware components and allows the aperture to be compressed. Also, it presents many new applications and advantages which include strong resistance to countermesasures and interception, imaging much wider swaths and reduced on-board storage requirements. The last part of the dissertation deals with object recognition based on learning dictionaries for simultaneous sparse signal approximations and feature extraction. A dictionary is learned for each object class based on given training examples which minimize the representation error with a sparseness constraint. A novel test image is then projected onto the span of the atoms in each learned dictionary. The residual vectors along with the coefficients are then used for recognition. Applications to illumination robust face recognition and automatic target recognition are presented.