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- ItemHow Is the World Shaped by Infrastructure Projects That Have Been Cancelled or Stalled?(2022-08) Graef, Dana J.; Cole, Montina; Covich, Alan P.; Huete-Pérez, Jorge A.; Maxwell, Amanda; Peyton, Jonathan; Stuhl, Andrew; Velásquez Runk, JulieThis report is the result of an interdisciplinary, international effort to examine the socio-environmental consequences of large-scale infrastructure projects that have been planned but not built—and reasons why projects have been cancelled or stalled. Collectively, our team examined eight cases of cancelled or stalled infrastructure projects in the Americas, drawing from our experiences in academic research and professional practice. Across cases, we found that projects were cancelled or stalled for interrelated reasons including environmental impact assessments, litigation and legislation, strong opposition and media attention, and/or increasing costs and faltering justifications. Our work further shows that cancelled or stalled development projects can create socio-environmental consequences that persist and cascade over time. The consequences of unbuilt infrastructure projects include the following: the development of new research networks; the establishment of precedents for socio-environmental assessment; the strengthening of social movements, often against the proposed development; changes in land use and land tenure; the exposure of environmental racism and injustice; and shifted development interventions. In sum, paying attention to cancelled and stalled projects provides a transdisciplinary lens for understanding broader processes of development, knowledge, power, science, and socio-environmental change. We conclude that when proposed large infrastructure projects are assessed, additional attention needs to be given to how they may shape landscapes and societies even if they are never built.
- ItemQualitative data sharing and re-use for socio-environmental systems research: A synthesis of opportunities, challenges, resources and approaches(2018) Jones, Kristal; Alexander, Steven M.; Bennett, Nathan; Bishop, Libby; Budden, Amber; Cox, Michael; Crosas, Mercè; Game, Eddie; Geary, Janis; Hahn, Charlie; Hardy, Dean; Johnson, Jay; Karcher, Sebastian; LaFevor, Matt; Motzer, Nicole; Pinto da Silva, Patricia; Pittman, Jeremy; Randell, Heather; Silva, Julie; Smith, Joseph; Smorul, Mike; Strasser, Carly; Strawhacker, Colleen; Stuhl, Andrew; Weber, Nicholas; Winslow, DeborahResearchers in many disciplines, both social and natural sciences, have a long history of collecting and analyzing qualitative data to answer questions that have many dimensions, to interpret other research findings, and to characterize processes that are not easily quantified. Qualitative data is increasingly being used in socio-environmental systems research and related interdisciplinary efforts to address complex sustainability challenges. There are many scientific, descriptive and material benefits to be gained from sharing and re-using qualitative data, some of which reflect the broader push toward open science, and some of which are unique to qualitative research traditions. However, although open data availability is increasingly becoming an expectation in many fields and methodological approaches that work on socio-environmental topics, there remain many challenges associated the sharing and re-use of qualitative data in particular. This white paper discusses opportunities, challenges, resources and approaches for qualitative data sharing and re-use for socio-environmental research. The content and findings of the paper are a synthesis and extension of discussions that began during a workshop funded by the National Socio-Environmental Synthesis Center (SESYNC) and held at the Center Feb. 28-March 2, 2017. The structure of the paper reflects the starting point for the workshop, which focused on opportunities, challenges and resources for qualitative data sharing, and presents as well the workshop outputs focused on developing a novel approach to qualitative data sharing considerations and creating recommendations for how a variety of actors can further support and facilitate qualitative data sharing and re-use. The white paper is organized into five sections to address the following objectives: (1) Define qualitative data and discuss the benefits of sharing it along with its role in socio-environmental synthesis; (2) Review the practical, epistemological, and ethical challenges regarding sharing such data; (3) Identify the landscape of resources available for sharing qualitative data including repositories and communities of practice (4) Develop a novel framework for identifying levels of processing and access to qualitative data; and (5) Suggest roles and responsibilities for key actors in the research ecosystem that can improve the longevity and use of qualitative data in the future.
- ItemDo Energy Savings Grow on Shade Trees?(2017) Maher, JoeIn warm climates, trees could provide natural air-conditioning by shading homes. Yet, there is little rigorous empirical evidence on the shade benefits of green infrastructure. This paper uses data on tree removal permits from a tree protection policy in Gainesville, Florida, between 2000 and 2016, and applies a difference-in-difference estimation model to examine whether tree shade reduces electricity demand. I find that a typical tree removal leads to 4-6% more electricity consumption annually, and 8-10% more during summer months of peak air-conditioning demand. Effects increase with the amount of shade loss: from zero effect (no shade) to 8-12% (large shade loss) and 10-20% (very large shade loss). I then use these estimates to calculate the private benefits of shade trees ($450 to $1,900) and find that they are similar to other energy efficiency investments (retrofits, building codes) assessed using comparable evaluation methods. I also calculate the social benefits (shade benefits to neighbors, avoided emissions, and avoided generation costs) of the tree protection policy and find that they are equal to the city expenditures on this policy. Overall, this study presents a road map for utilities and policy makers to assess returns from investments in green infrastructure.
- ItemWHITE PAPER: AN OVERVIEW OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS, ANALYTICAL APPROACHES AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS IN THE FOOD-ENERGY-WATER NEXUS(2017) Jones, Kristal; Magliocca, Nicholas R; Hondula, KellyThe food-energy-water (FEW) nexus is increasingly emphasized and prioritized as a framework for research, technology, and policy to deal with complex socio-environmental problems. Producing food in sufficient quantity and of sufficient quality, ensuring enough but not too much water, and generating energy, all to meet human needs and desires, requires an understanding of how those goals complement or counteract one another in specific places and through specific processes. FEW nexus research focuses on understanding the interconnections among each system, in order to provide a more complete picture about the causes and consequences of changes within and across aspects of those systems. This paper synthesizes the current state of thinking and research in FEW nexus field. We first overview the systems underpinnings of the FEW nexus as a conceptual framework, and identify the assumptions, similarities and contrasts among the most cited models from current literature. Several analytical approaches – coupled systems, ecosystem services, flows and risk analysis – are emerging as key tools for conducting interdisciplinary FEW nexus research, and we identify their conceptual connections to systems thinking broadly as well as the specific assumptions that each make about the relationships among systems. Finally, based on expert consultations and assessment of current data availability, we highlight several topical areas of contemporary relevance for FEW nexus research at various scales. Characterizing the conceptual, analytical and empirical similarities and distinctions among approaches to FEW nexus research with a starting point for identifying innovative research questions and approaches.
- ItemSocio-Environmental Synthesis Tutorials(SESYNC, 2015-01) Wei, CynthiaSocio-environmental (S-E) synthesis advances the understanding of S-E systems. These tutorials introduce fundamental concepts about S-E systems. Each tutorial consists of written text and accompanying resources that illustrate some of the key concepts for understanding S-E systems. The series includes: Tutorial 1- Overview of Socio-environmental Synthesis; provides an overview of the socio-environmental research and problem solving approach. Tutorial 2- Systems Perspectives and Dynamics; provides an overview of systems perspectives and the importance of understanding the behavior and dynamics of systems. Tutorial 3- Understanding Socio-environmental Systems: Thresholds, States, and Resilience; this tutorial describes basic concepts important for understanding the complex behavior of systems. Tutorial 4- Understanding Socio-environmental Systems: Hierarchy and Scale; this tutorial provides an introduction to concepts of hierarchy and scale and their importance for understanding socio-environmental systems. Learning Goals include: Tutorial 5- Understanding Socio-environmental Systems: Adaptive Cycles: his tutorial provides a basic introduction to the concept of adaptive cycles and their utility for understanding socio-environmental systems.