Behavioral & Community Health Research Works

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    Leveraging 13 million responses to the U.S. COVID-19 Trends and Impact Survey to examine vaccine hesitancy, vaccination, and mask wearing, January 2021-February 2022
    (Springer Nature, 2022-10-13) Nguyen, Quynh C.; Yardi, Isha; Gutierrez, Francia Ximena Marin; Mane, Heran; Yue, Xiaohe
    The urgency of the COVID-19 pandemic called upon the joint efforts from the scientific and private sectors to work together to track vaccine acceptance and prevention behaviors. Our study utilized individual responses to the Delphi Group at Carnegie Mellon University U.S. COVID-19 Trends and Impact Survey, in partnership with Facebook. We retrieved survey data from January 2021 to February 2022 (n = 13,426,245) to examine contextual and individual-level predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, vaccination, and mask wearing in the United States. Adjusted logistic regression models were developed to examine individual and ZIP code predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and vaccination status. Given the COVID-19 vaccine was rolled out in phases in the U.S. we conducted analyses stratified by time, January 2021-May 2021 (Time 1) and June 2021-February 2022 (Time 2). In January 2021 only 9% of U.S. Facebook respondents reported receiving the COVID-19 vaccine, and 45% were vaccine hesitant. By February 2022, 80% of U.S. Facebook respondents were vaccinated and only 18% were vaccine hesitant. Individuals who were older, held higher educational degrees, worked in white collar jobs, wore a mask most or all the time, and identified as white and Asian had higher COVID-19 vaccination rates and lower vaccine hesitancy across Time 1 and Time 2. Essential workers and blue-collar occupations had lower COVID vaccinations and higher vaccine hesitancy. By Time 2, all adults were eligible for the COVID-19 vaccine, but blacks and multiracial individuals had lower vaccination and higher vaccine hesitancy compared to whites. Those 55 years and older and females had higher odds of wearing masks most or all the time. Protective service, construction, and installation and repair occupations had lower odds of wearing masks. ZIP Code level percentage of the population with a bachelors’ which was associated with mask wearing, higher vaccination, and lower vaccine hesitancy. Associations found in earlier phases of the pandemic were generally found to also be present later in the pandemic, indicating stability in inequities. Additionally, inequities in these important outcomes suggests more work is needed to bridge gaps to ensure that the burden of COVID-19 risk does not disproportionately fall upon subgroups of the population.
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    Men missing from the HIV care continuum in sub-Saharan Africa: a meta-analysis and meta-synthesis
    (Journal of the International AIDS Society, 2022-03-24) Nardell, Maria; Adeoti, Oluwatomi; Peters, Carson; Kakuhikire, Bernard; Govathson-Mandimika, Caroline; Long, Lawrence; Pascoe, Sophie; Tsai, Alexander; Katz, Ingrid
    Introduction: Men are missing along the HIV care continuum. However, the estimated proportions of men in sub-Saharan Africa meeting the UNAIDS 95-95-95 goals vary substantially between studies. We sought to estimate proportions of men meeting each of the 95-95-95 goals across studies in sub-Saharan Africa, describe heterogeneity, and summarize qualitative evidence on factors influencing care engagement. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed and Embase for peer-reviewed articles published between 1 January 2014 and 16 October 2020. We included studies involving men ≥15 years old, with data from 2009 onward, reporting on at least one 95-95-95 goal in sub-Saharan Africa. We estimated pooled proportions of men meeting these goals using DerSimonion-Laird random effects models, stratifying by study population (e.g. studies focusing exclusively on men who have sex with men vs. studies that did not), facility setting (healthcare vs. community site), region (eastern/southern Africa vs. western/central Africa), outcome measurement (e.g. threshold for viral load suppression), median year of data collection (before vs. during or after 2017) and quality criteria. Data from qualitative studies exploring barriers to men’s HIV care engagement were summarized using meta-synthesis. Results and discussion: We screened 14,896 studies and included 129 studies in the meta-analysis, compiling data over the data collection period. Forty-seven studies reported data on knowledge of serostatus, 43 studies reported on antiretroviral therapy use and 74 studies reported on viral suppression. Approximately half of men with HIV reported not knowing their status (0.49 [95% CI, 0.41–0.58; range, 0.09–0.97]) or not being on treatment (0.58 [95% CI, 0.51–0.65; range, 0.07–0.97]), while over three-quarters of men achieved viral suppression on treatment (0.79 [95% CI, 0.77–0.81; range, 0.39–0.97]. Heterogeneity was high, with variation in estimates across study populations, settings and outcomes. The meta-synthesis of 40 studies identified three primary domains in which men described risks associated with engagement in HIV care: perceived social norms, health system challenges and poverty. Conclusions: Psychosocial and systems-level interventions that change men’s perceptions of social norms, improve trust in and accessibility of the health system, and address costs of accessing care are needed to better engage men, especially in HIV testing and treatment.
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    Experiences of young parents with foster care backgrounds during the COVID-19 pandemic: Brief report
    (2021-12) Shpiegel, Svetlana; Aparicio, Elizabeth
    The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unique challenges to parents of young children due to the closure of schools and childcare centers and increased caregiver burden. These challenges may be especially pronounced for youth with foster care backgrounds, as they often lack family supports and other critical safety nets. This multi-method qualitative study aimed to explore the unique experiences of parenting foster care alumni during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study included 26 young parents ages 18-26, who participated in in-depth interviews or Photovoice sessions between January and March 2021. A structured thematic analysis approach was used to examine youths` accounts. Findings indicated that young parents with foster care backgrounds faced significant challenges due to COVID-19, and often struggled to access critical resources and supports. Implications for policy and practice are discussed below.
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    The relationship between unsupervised time after school and physical activity in adolescent girls
    (Springer Nature, 2006-07-31) Rushovich, Berenice R; Voorhees, Carolyn C; Davis, CE; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Elder, John P; Going, Scott; Marino, Vivian G
    Rising obesity and declining physical activity levels are of great concern because of the associated health risks. Many children are left unsupervised after the school day ends, but little is known about the association between unsupervised time and physical activity levels. This paper seeks to determine whether adolescent girls who are without adult supervision after school are more or less active than their peers who have a caregiver at home. A random sample of girls from 36 middle schools at 6 field sites across the U.S. was selected during the fall of the 2002–2003 school year to participate in the baseline measurement activities of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Information was collected using six-day objectively measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity using a three-day recall, and socioeconomic and psychosocial measures. Complete information was available for 1422 out of a total of 1596 respondents. Categorical variables were analyzed using chi square and continuous variables were analyzed by t-tests. The four categories of time alone were compared using a mixed linear model controlling for clustering effects by study center. Girls who spent more time after school (≥2 hours per day, ≥2 days per week) without adult supervision were more active than those with adult supervision (p = 0.01). Girls alone for ≥2 hours after school, ≥2 days a week, on average accrue 7.55 minutes more moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day than do girls who are supervised (95% confidence interval ([C.I]). These results adjusted for ethnicity, parent's education, participation in the free/reduced lunch program, neighborhood resources, or available transportation. Unsupervised girls (n = 279) did less homework (53.1% vs. 63.3%), spent less time riding in a car or bus (48.0% vs. 56.6%), talked on the phone more (35.5% vs. 21.1%), and watched more television (59.9% vs. 52.6%) than supervised girls (n = 569). However, unsupervised girls also were more likely to be dancing (14.0% vs. 9.3%) and listening to music (20.8% vs. 12.0%) (p < .05). Girls in an unsupervised environment engaged in fewer structured activities and did not immediately do their homework, but they were more likely to be physically active than supervised girls. These results may have implications for parents, school, and community agencies as to how to structure activities in order to encourage teenage girls to be more physically active.
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    Girls' perception of physical environmental factors and transportation: reliability and association with physical activity and active transport to school
    (Springer Nature, 2006-09-14) Evenson, Kelly R; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L; Sallis, James F; Voorhees, Carolyn C; Ring, Kimberly; Elder, John P
    Preliminary evidence suggests that the physical environment and transportation are associated with youth physical activity levels. Only a few studies have examined the association of physical environmental factors on walking and bicycling to school. Therefore, the purpose of this study was (1) to examine the test-retest reliability of a survey designed for youth to assess perceptions of physical environmental factors (e.g. safety, aesthetics, facilities near the home) and transportation, and (2) to describe the associations of these perceptions with both physical activity and active transport to school. Test and retest surveys, administered a median of 12 days later, were conducted with 480 sixth- and eighth-grade girls in or near six U.S. communities. The instrument consisted of 24 questions on safety and aesthetics of the perceived environment and transportation and related facilities. Additionally, girls were asked if they were aware of 14 different recreational facilities offering structured and unstructured activities, and if so, whether they would visit these facilities and the ease with which they could access them. Test-retest reliability was determined using kappa coefficients, overall and separately by grade. Associations with physical activity and active transport to school were examined using mixed model logistic regression (n = 610), adjusting for grade, race/ethnicity, and site. Item-specific reliabilities for questions assessing perceived safety and aesthetics of the neighborhood ranged from 0.31 to 0.52. Reliabilities of items assessing awareness of and interest in going to the 14 recreational facilities ranged from 0.47 to 0.64. Reliabilities of items assessing transportation ranged from 0.34 to 0.58. Some items on girls' perceptions of perceived safety, aesthetics of the environment, facilities, and transportation were important correlates of physical activity and, in some cases, active transport to school. This study provides some psychometric support for the use of the questionnaire on physical environmental factors and transportation for studying physical activity and active transport to school among adolescent girls. Further work can continue to improve reliability of these self-report items and examine their association of these factors with objectively measured physical activity.