Information Research Works

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 101
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    Piloting Reparative Description and Metadata in SNAC via the Indigenous Description Group
    (Descriptive Notes, 2024-04-02) Bull, Ia; Chapman, Lindsey; Curliss, Lydia; Hamilton, Mik; Marsh, Diana; Martin, Worthy; Miller, Jerrid Lee; Pipestem, Veronica; Smoke, Ugoma; Sorensen, Amanda H; Stoner, Melissa
    Archivists have recognized the need to rethink how this knowledge can be better represented, not only to heal previous harms but also to make information more accessible and usable for communities. A number of professional organizations and working groups have been developing inclusive description policies, resources, and approaches that can be leveraged in a wide range of institutional contexts. In March 2023, we launched Indigenous Description Group (IDG)–modeled after SNAC’s Enslaved Description Group (EDG)–within SNAC’s Editorial Standards Working Group. The goals of the IDG are to 1) improve accessibility to archival collections for Indigenous Tribal communities; 2) mitigate harm caused by extractive collecting processes; and 3) engage in reparative description across systems, at scale, and in an interoperable way.
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    Editorial Guide for Indigenous Entity Descriptions in SNAC
    (2022-03) Curliss, Lydia; Marsh, Diana; Gates, Irene; Satriano, Katherine; Simmons, Jerry; Herbert, Dina
    This editorial guide was originally created for participants in the SNAC Indigenous edit-a-thon and for future editors when considering Indigenous records. This editorial guide considers best practices in the field as they apply to the Social Networks and Archival Context (abbreviated as SNAC) platform but we hope that this may lead to changes in other databases, platforms, and practices. While we pull from multiple sources, this is not exhaustive, and will change as new protocols, resources, policies, and other documentation becomes available in the field.
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    A New Committee Launches: Making a Case for Archival Repatriation
    (2024-01) Punzalan, Ricardo; Arsenault, Jaime; Begay, Vina; Chaterera-Zambuko, Forget; Marsh, Diana; Savory, Jacob; Schlottmann, Kevin; Stoner, Melissa; Schmitt, Jack
    Access to and community possession of archival materials containing Native and Indigenous knowledge, language, and lifeways is crucial to the cultural survivance, revital- ization, and continuation of communities. Nevertheless, archival organizations have yet to fully address how the profession might approach the growing demand for archival repatriation. In response, the Society of American Archivists formed the Archival Repatriation Committee with the charge to “[E]nsure that [SAA]’s services, activities, policies, communications, and products support the goal of supporting archivists in repatriating and receiving archival materials.”
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    The Protocols for Native American Archival Materials and Description
    (2021-04-15) Buchanan, Rose; Marsh, Diana
    The Protocols for Native American Archival Materials (PNAAM) establish best practices for the culturally responsive care and use of Native American archival materials, particularly materials that are housed in non-Tribal institutions. Following SAA’s endorsement of PNAAM as an external standard in 2018, the Native American Archives Section (NAAS) launched a case studies and webinar series about implementing them. These resources include guidelines for providing culturally appropriate and accurate descriptive information for Native American and Indigenous collections.
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    Unpacking Social Media’s Role in Resource Provision: Variations across Relational and Communicative Properties
    (MDPI, 2014-10-23) Vitak, Jessica
    New information and communication technologies (ICTs) challenge existing beliefs regarding the exchange of social resources within a network. The present study examines individuals’ perceived access to social, emotional, and instrumental resources by analyzing relational and Facebook-specific characteristics of dyadic relationships. Results suggest that the social and technical affordances of the site—including visibility of content and connections, as well as streamlined processes for interacting with a large audience—may augment existing perceptions of resource access for some ties while providing a major (or sole) outlet to interact and exchange resources with others. Specifically, weaker ties appear to benefit more than strong ties from engagement in directed communication and relationship maintenance strategies, while additional variations were observed across relationship category, dyad composition, and geographic proximity. In summary, these findings provide new evidence for how positive relational gains may be derived from site use.
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    Environmental Factors Affecting Where People Geocache
    (MDPI, 2016-04-12) Golbeck, Jennifer; Neustaedter, Carman
    Outdoor leisure activities are important for public health as well as family cohesiveness, yet environmental factors may easily affect someone’s ability to participate in such activities. We explored this with a focus on the social web-based treasure hunt game called Geocaching. We collected data on all US and Canadian geocaches from and conducted an online survey with twenty geocachers as a follow-up to our data analysis. Data analysis showed that geocaches were more often found in areas that were wealthier, better educated, younger, and more urban, and had higher population density and better weather. Survey results showed similar trends: Most people actively thought about where they would cache and tried to minimize risks, despite cache hiders thinking less about these concerns. These results further emphasize the importance of environmental factors when it comes to participation in outdoor activities and leads to Human–Computer Interaction design implications for location-based online social activities.
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    User Perception of Facebook App Data Access: A Comparison of Methods and Privacy Concerns
    (MDPI, 2016-03-25) Golbeck, Jennifer; Mauriello, Matthew Louis
    Users share vast amounts of personal information online, but are they fully aware of what information they are sharing and with whom? In this paper, we focused on Facebook apps and set out to understand how concerned users are about privacy and how well-informed they are about what personal data apps can access. We found that initially, subjects were generally under-informed about what data apps could access from their profiles. After viewing additional information about these permissions, subjects’ concern about privacy on Facebook increased. Subjects’ understanding of what data apps were able to access increased, although even after receiving explicit information on the topic, many subjects still did not fully understand the extent to which apps could access their data.
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    DRAS-TIC Linked Data: Evenly Distributing the Past
    (MDPI, 2019-07-04) Jansen, Gregory; Coburn, Aaron; Soroka, Adam; Thomas, Will; Marciano, Richard
    Memory institutions must be able to grow a fully-functional repository incrementally as collections grow, without expensive enterprise storage, massive data migrations, and the performance limits that stem from the vertical storage strategies. The Digital Repository at Scale that Invites Computation (DRAS-TIC) Fedora research project, funded by a two-year National Digital Platform grant from the Institute for Museum and Library Services (IMLS), is producing open-source software, tested cluster configurations, documentation, and best-practice guides that enable institutions to manage linked data repositories with petabyte-scale collections reliably. DRAS-TIC is a research initiative at the University of Maryland (UMD). The first DRAS-TIC repository system, named Indigo, was developed in 2015 and 2016 through a collaboration between U.K.-based storage company, Archive Analytics Ltd., and the UMD iSchool Digital Curation Innovation Center (DCIC), through funding from an NSF DIBBs (Data Infrastructure Building Blocks) grant (NCSA “Brown Dog”). DRAS-TIC Indigo leverages industry standard distributed database technology, in the form of Apache Cassandra, to provide open-ended scaling of repository storage without performance degradation. With the DRAS-TIC Fedora initiative, we make use of the Trellis Linked Data Platform (LDP), developed by Aaron Coburn at Amherst College, to add the LDP API over similar Apache Cassandra storage. This paper will explain our partner use cases, explore the system components, and showcase our performance-oriented approach, with the most emphasis given to performance measures available through the analytical dashboard on our testbed website.
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    English language education and acculturation research: Problematic historical parallels and the path ahead
    (Wiley, 2023-07-20) Siebold, Connie
    Multilingual education and acculturation research share a parallel history of problematic research paradigms that center the majority viewpoint and view minorities through a lens of deficit. This continual pathology of cultural difference has led to the pathologization of minority individuals, and has hampered our efforts to effectively understand and educate in a nuanced and culturally sensitive manner. In our focus on quantifying stress and deficiency, we have failed to understand emic experiences of joy and agency that can better inform our teaching and research. This article asserts a model of research and teaching that prioritizes narrative reclamation, while developing the concept of acculturative joy as a lens of study.
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    Evaluating View Management for Situated Visualization in Web-based Handheld AR
    (Wiley, 2023-06-27) Batch, A.; Shin, S.; Liu, J.; Butcher, P. W. S.; Ritsos, P. D.; Elmqvist, N.
    As visualization makes the leap to mobile and situated settings, where data is increasingly integrated with the physical world using mixed reality, there is a corresponding need for effectively managing the immersed user's view of situated visualizations. In this paper we present an analysis of view management techniques for situated 3D visualizations in handheld augmented reality: a shadowbox, a world-in-miniature metaphor, and an interactive tour. We validate these view management solutions through a concrete implementation of all techniques within a situated visualization framework built using a web-based augmented reality visualization toolkit, and present results from a user study in augmented reality accessed using handheld mobile devices.
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    Theories and implications for centering Indigenous and queer embodiment within sociotechnical systems
    (Wiley, 2023-02-23) Wagner, Travis L.; Marsh, Diana; Curliss, Lydia
    This paper explores the role of Indigenous and queer embodiment in understanding the current limitations of sociotechnical systems as they relate to cultural heritage institutions. Through the utilization of a critical case study the paper highlights the ways in which the ideologies of colonialism and cisnormativity render Indigenous and queer identities invisible within cultural heritage institutions. In particular, the case studies highlight information organization, archival description, and cataloging as sites of ideological reinforcement for colonialism and gender binaries. In response, the paper identifies methods for not only naming such normative ideologies, but actionable ways to challenge such inequities through community-led, Indigenous, and queer affirming descriptive practices. Additionally, the paper attends to the way findings impact other historically marginalized identities and theorize methods for confronting such inequities within sociotechnical systems more broadly.
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    Data everyday as community-driven science: Athletes' critical data literacy practices in collegiate sports contexts
    (Wiley, 2022-12-27) Clegg, Tamara L.; Cleveland, Keaunna; Weight, Erianne; Greene, Daniel; Elmqvist, Niklas
    In this article, we investigate the community-driven science happening organically in elite athletics as a means of engaging a community of learners—collegiate athletes, many of whom come from underrepresented groups—in STEM. We aim to recognize the data literacy practices inherent in sports play and to explore the potential of critical data literacy practices for enabling athletes to leverage data science as a means of addressing systemic racial, equity, and justice issues inherent in sports institutions. We leverage research on critical data literacies as a lens to present case studies of three athletes at an NCAA Division 1 university spanning three different sports. We focus on athletes' experiences as they engage in critical data literacy practices and the ways they welcome, adapt, resist, and critique such engagements. Our findings indicate ways in which athletes (1) readily accept data practices espoused by their coaches and sport, (2) critique and intentionally disengage from such practices, and (3) develop their own new data productions. In order to support community-driven science, our findings point to the critical role of athletics' organizations in promoting athletes' access to, as well as engagement and agency with data practices on their teams.
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    From Compliance to Impact: Tracing the Transformation of an Organizational Security Awareness Program
    (, 2023-09-15) Haney, Julie M.; Lutters, Wayne G.; Lutters, Wayne G.
    There is a growing recognition of the need for a transformation from organizational security awareness programs focused on compliance − measured by training completion rates − to those resulting in behavior change. However, few prior studies have begun to unpack the organizational practices of the security awareness teams tasked with executing program transformation. We conducted a year-long case study of a security awareness program in a United States (U.S.) government agency, collecting data via field observations, interviews, and documents. Our findings reveal the challenges and practices involved in the progression of a security awareness program from being compliance-focused to emphasizing impact on workforce attitudes and behaviors. We uniquely capture transformational organizational security awareness practices in action via a longitudinal study involving multiple workforce perspectives. Our study insights can serve as a resource for other security awareness programs and workforce development initiatives aimed at better defining the security awareness work role.
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    Fluid Transformers and Creative Analogies: Exploring Large Language Models’ Capacity for Augmenting Cross-Domain Analogical Creativity
    (Association for Computer Machinery (ACM), 2023-06-19) Ding, Zijian; Srinivasan, Arvind; MacNeil, Stephen; Chan, Joel
    Cross-domain analogical reasoning is a core creative ability that can be challenging for humans. Recent work has shown some proofsof-concept of Large language Models’ (LLMs) ability to generate cross-domain analogies. However, the reliability and potential usefulness of this capacity for augmenting human creative work has received little systematic exploration. In this paper, we systematically explore LLMs capacity to augment cross-domain analogical reasoning. Across three studies, we found: 1) LLM-generated crossdomain analogies were frequently judged as helpful in the context of a problem reformulation task (median 4 out of 5 helpfulness rating), and frequently (∼80% of cases) led to observable changes in problem formulations, and 2) there was an upper bound of ∼25% of outputs being rated as potentially harmful, with a majority due to potentially upsetting content, rather than biased or toxic content. These results demonstrate the potential utility — and risks — of LLMs for augmenting cross-domain analogical creativity.
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    Decorative, Evocative, and Uncanny: Reactions on Ambient-to-Disruptive Health Notifications via Plant-Mimicking Shape-Changing Interfaces
    (Association for Computer Machinery (ACM), 2023-04-23) Lee, Jarrett G.W.; Lee, Bongshin; Choe, Eun Kyoung
    Ambient Information Systems (AIS) have shown some success when used as a notification towards users’ health-related activities. But in the actual busy lives of users, ambient notifications might be forgotten or even missed, nullifying the original notification. Could a system use multiple levels of noticeability to ensure its message is received, and how could this concept be effectively portrayed? To examine these questions, we took a Research through Design approach and created plant-mimicking Shape-Changing Interface (S-CI) artifacts, then conducted interviews with 10 participants who currently used a reminder system for health-related activities. We report findings on acceptable scenarios to disrupting people for health-related activities, and participants’ reactions to our design choices, including how using naturalistic aesthetics led to interpretations of the uncanny and morose, and which ways system physicality affected imagined uses. We offer design suggestions in health-related notification systems and S-CIs, and discuss future work in ambient-to-disruptive technology.
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    Through Their Eyes and In Their Shoes: Providing Group Awareness During Collaboration Across Virtual Reality and Desktop Platforms
    (Association for Computer Machinery (ACM), 2023-04-23) Saffo, David; Batch, Andrea; Dunne, Cody; Elmqvist, Niklas
    Many collaborative data analysis situations benefit from collaborators utilizing different platforms. However, maintaining group awareness between team members using diverging devices is difficult, not least because common ground diminishes. A person using head-mounted VR cannot physically see a user on a desktop computer even while co-located, and the desktop user cannot easily relate to the VR user’s 3D workspace. To address this, we propose the “eyes-and-shoes” principles for group awareness and abstract them into four levels of techniques. Furthermore, we evaluate these principles with a qualitative user study of 6 participant pairs synchronously collaborating across distributed desktop and VR head-mounted devices. In this study, we vary the group awareness techniques between participants and explore two visualization contexts within participants. The results of this study indicate that the more visual metaphors and views of participants diverge, the greater the level of group awareness is needed.
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    Accessible Data Representation with Natural Sound
    (Association for Computer Machinery (ACM), 2023-04-23) Hoque, Md Naimul; Ehtesham-Ul-Haque, Md; Elmqvist, Niklas; Billah, Syed Masum
    Sonification translates data into non-speech audio. Such auditory representations can make data visualization accessible to people who are blind or have low vision (BLV). This paper presents a sonification method for translating common data visualization into a blend of natural sounds. We hypothesize that people’s familiarity with sounds drawn from nature, such as birds singing in a forest, and their ability to listen to these sounds in parallel, will enable BLV users to perceive multiple data points being sonified at the same time. Informed by an extensive literature review and a preliminary study with 5 BLV participants, we designed an accessible data representation tool, Susurrus, that combines our sonification method with other accessibility features, such as keyboard interaction and text-to-speech feedback. Finally, we conducted a user study with 12 BLV participants and report the potential and application of natural sounds for sonification compared to existing sonification tools.
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    Studying Exploration & Long-Term Use of Voice Assistants by Older Adults
    (Association for Computer Machinery (ACM), 2023-04-23) Upadhyay, Pooja; Heung, Sharon; Azenkot, Shiri; Brewer, Robin
    While past research has examined older adults’ voice assistant (VA) use, it is unclear whether VAs provide enough value to sustain use when compared to technologies such as smartphones. Research also suggests that barriers around structured command input may limit use. In order to investigate these gaps in adoption, we conducted interviews with ten older adults in a long-term care community who have adopted Alexa devices for at least one year. Participants learned to use Alexa through a training program that encouraged exploration. They used Alexa to complement their daily routines, improve their mood, engage in cognitively stimulating activities, and support socialization with others. We discuss our findings in the context of prior work, describe strategies to promote VA learning and adoption, and present design recommendations to support aging.
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    Contributing to Accessibility Datasets: Reflections on Sharing Study Data by Blind People
    (Association for Computer Machinery (ACM), 2023-04-23) Kamikubo, Rie; Lee, Kyungjun; Kacorri, Hernisa
    To ensure that AI-infused systems work for disabled people, we need to bring accessibility datasets sourced from this community in the development lifecycle. However, there are many ethical and privacy concerns limiting greater data inclusion, making such datasets not readily available. We present a pair of studies where 13 blind participants engage in data capturing activities and refect with and without probing on various factors that infuence their decision to share their data via an AI dataset. We see how diferent factors infuence blind participants’ willingness to share study data as they assess risk-beneft tradeofs. The majority support sharing of their data to improve technology but also express concerns over commercial use, associated metadata, and the lack of transparency about the impact of their data. These insights have implications for the development of responsible practices for stewarding accessibility datasets, and can contribute to broader discussions in this area.
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    Perceptual Pat: A Virtual Human Visual System for Iterative Visualization Design
    (Association for Computer Machinery (ACM), 2023-04-23) Shin, Sungbok; Hong, Sanghyun; Elmqvist, Niklas
    Designing a visualization is often a process of iterative refinement where the designer improves a chart over time by adding features, improving encodings, and fixing mistakes. However, effective design requires external critique and evaluation. Unfortunately, such critique is not always available on short notice and evaluation can be costly. To address this need, we present Perceptual Pat, an extensible suite of AI and computer vision techniques that forms a virtual human visual system for supporting iterative visualization design. The system analyzes snapshots of a visualization using an extensible set of filters—including gaze maps, text recognition, color analysis, etc—and generates a report summarizing the findings. The web-based Pat Design Lab provides a version tracking system that enables the designer to track improvements over time. We validate Perceptual Pat using a longitudinal qualitative study involving 4 professional visualization designers that used the tool over a few days to design a new visualization.