Psychology Research Works

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    Harm reduction behaviors are associated with carrying naloxone among patients on methadone treatment
    (Springer Nature, 2023-02-14) Kozak, Zofia; Ciccarone, Daniel; Thrul, Johannes; Cole, Thomas O.; Pappas, Alexander L.; Greenblatt, Aaron D.; Welsh, Christopher; Yoon, Mark; Gann, Donald Jr.; Artigiani, E. Erin; Wish, Eric D.; Belcher, Annabelle M.
    Despite the widespread availability of naloxone, US opioid overdose rates continue to rise. The “Cascade of Care” (CoC) is a public health approach that identifies steps in achieving specific outcomes and has been used to identify gaps in naloxone carriage among individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD). We sought to apply this framework to a treatment-seeking population with OUD that may be more inclined to engage in harm reduction behaviors. Patients were recruited from an urban methadone program to complete a survey. We assessed naloxone familiarity, availability, obtainability, training, and possession, as well as naloxone carriage rates, demographics, and harm reduction behaviors. A multivariable logistic regression examined associations between naloxone carriage and individual-level factors. Participants (n = 97) were majority male (59%), with a mean age of 48 (SD = 12), 27% had college education or higher, 64% indicated injection drug use, and 84% reported past naloxone training. All participants endorsed familiarity with naloxone, but only 42% regularly carried naloxone. The following variables were associated with carrying naloxone: White race (aOR = 2.94, 95% CI 1.02–8.52), college education (aOR = 8.11, 95% CI 1.76–37.47), and total number of self-reported harm reduction behaviors (aOR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.00–2.11). We found low rates of naloxone carriage among methadone-treated patients. Methadone programs provide opportunities for naloxone interventions and should target racial/ethnic minorities and individuals with lower education. The spectrum of harm reduction behaviors should be encouraged among these populations to enhance naloxone carriage.
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    Report on the Organizational Climates of Congress
    (2019-10-24) Hanges, Paul J; Lee, Frances; Miler, Kristina; Wessel, Jennifer
    The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of Congress by attending to how the people who serve in the institution perceive Congress’ procedures, norms and expectations for their behavior. What are the “unwritten rules” that members and staff come to understand as they experience the institution? What types of behaviors are rewarded and encouraged inside Congress? How do these shared organizational perceptions and practices, in turn, shape how members of Congress work with other members, both within and between the two major parties? We took an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the climate and culture of Congress. We conducted 60 interviews with either former Members of Congress or House staff members. We found that the reward structure inside congressional parties is oriented around relationships. Results: The Structure of Intraparty Rewards Members advance in influence via their success in cultivating the esteem of their colleagues. This entails developing a reputation for expertise and integrity. But it also means building a social network by doing favors for others, especially fundraising. Members are seen as not considerate of others or unwilling to be “team players” have difficulty rising in influence. Individual members generally advance their standing in the party by building consensus rather than winning conflicts. But coalitions of members can gain greater weight within their party by being seen as winning conflicts. The central importance of relationships in Congress is consistent with patterns prevailing in fluid organizations more generally. The Climate of Intraparty Conflict and Cooperation Nearly all respondents described themselves as feeling free to speak up when they disagreed with their party leaders, though certain norms govern and restrain such behavior. In particular, disagreements with leaders should be raised in private or in party caucus but not in public or the press, though there was also recognition that not all members adhered to this norm. Similarly, verbal disagreement with party leaders is accepted, but active resistance of the party is frowned upon and subject to sanction. Tolerance of intraparty dissent is reasonably high, but members do at times experience pressure to go along with leaders, particularly on highly salient issues central to the party’s program. The Climate of Interparty Conflict and Cooperation Our findings paint a somewhat mixed picture of the state of cooperation across the aisle in Congress, where elements of collaborative and dominating culture are evident. Our interviews also reveal that on issues that are less visible and less important to the parties, working across the aisle to achieve “win-win” outcomes is considered possible and common even in today’s Congress. Many legislators and staff members are interested in working with colleagues across the aisle and have experience doing so. Moreover, clear paths lead to interpersonal cooperation, namely serving together on a committee, personal friendships, and common district interests.
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    Why We Follow Narcissistic Leaders
    (Harvard Business Review, 2023-01-30) Gruda, Dritjon; Hanges, Paul J.
    A recent study aimed to understand narcissistic leaders and who is most likely to follow them. The results revealed a few patterns. If you are someone who is always looking out for others, empathizes with others, and seeks harmony and consensus in your team (known as agreeable followers), you are more likely to be susceptible to following a narcissistic leader. If you are someone who gets anxious and worried easily or likes to get started on work projects early on to prevent anxiety as a deadline draws closer (known as neurotic followers), you probably prefer engaging with narcissistic leaders.
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    fMRI Meta-Analysis of Social Interaction via Joint Attention Paradigms
    (2022-04-27) Edakoth, Esha; Glaros, Sophia; Harris, Riley; McGovern, Chelsea; Merchant, Junaid S; Tchangalova, Nedelina; Redcay, Elizabeth
    Joint Attention (JA) is the sharing of attention on a common object or event by two or more people. JA is an important precursor to the development of social cognitive skills needed for more sophisticated forms of social interaction. The brain regions involved in JA during social interactive contexts are not well known because original studies of JA used tasks that are not interactive, such as engaging with the eye gaze of a static image outside of a social interactive context. Recent studies have used fMRI to understand the different brain regions associated with JA in interactive contexts, but there are inconsistent findings across studies. Therefore, this study uses meta-analytic methods to aggregate findings across JA studies using social interactive approaches to identify brain regions that are commonly activated.
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    “It’s all about asking from those who have walked the path”: Patient and stakeholder perspectives on how peers may shift substance use stigma in HIV care in South Africa
    (Springer Nature, 2022-09-21) Magidson, Jessica F.; Rose, Alexandra L.; Regenauer, Kristen S.; Brooke-Sumner, Carrie; Anvari, Morgan S.; Jack, Helen E.; Johnson, Kim; Belus, Jennifer M.; Joska, John; Bassett, Ingrid V.; Sibeko, Goodman; Myers, Bronwyn
    South Africa has the highest number of people with HIV (PWH) globally and a significant burden of co-occurring substance use disorder (SUD). Health care worker (HCW) stigma towards SUD is a key barrier to HIV care engagement among PWH with SUD. Support from peers—individuals with lived experience of SUD—may be a promising solution for addressing SUD stigma, while also improving engagement in HIV care. We evaluated the perceived acceptability of integrating a peer role into community-based HIV care teams as a strategy to address SUD stigma at multiple levels and improve patient engagement in HIV care. Patients and stakeholders (N = 40) were recruited from publicly-funded HIV and SUD organizations in Cape Town, South Africa. We conducted a quantitative assessment of stigma among stakeholders using an adapted Social Distance Scale (SDS) and patient perceptions of working with a peer, as well as semi-structured interviews focused on experiences of SUD stigma, acceptability of a peer model integrated into community-based HIV care, and potential peer roles. On the SDS, 75% of stakeholders had high stigma towards a patient with SUD, yet 90% had low stigma when in recovery for at least 2 years. All patients endorsed feeling comfortable talking to someone in recovery and wanting them on their HIV care team. Three main themes emerged from the qualitative data: (1) patient-reported experiences of enacted SUD and HIV stigmas were common and impacted HIV care engagement; (2) both patients and stakeholders considered a peer model highly acceptable for integration into HIV care to support engagement and address SUD stigma; and (3) patients and stakeholders identified both individual-level and systems-level roles for peers, how peers could work alongside other providers to improve patient care, and key characteristics that peers would need to be successful in these roles. Findings from this formative work point to the promise of a peer model for reducing SUD stigma among patients and HCWs within community-based HIV care teams in SA.