Human Development & Quantitative Methodology Research Works

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 33
  • Item
    30 Parent Number Input
    (2024-07-15) Mix, Kelly; Cabrera, Natasha; not applicable
    This dataset contains codes of parent numeracy input including number word utterances, other quantitative words, and quantitative actions or gestures based on a set of video recorded home visits conducted for a separate study (Cabrera & Reich, 2017) when children were 30 months old. The dataset also includes demographic information and children's scores on a numeracy outcome measure collected when children were 43 months on average. The parent number input codes were collected in 2022-2023 and the children’s numeracy outcome scores collected between 2020-2021.
  • Item
    K-2 Place Value Concepts Smart Errors Study (v.1)
    (2024-01-19) Bower, Corinne, Mix, Kelly S., Smith, Linda B.
  • Item
    Students’ Scientific Evaluations of Water Resources
    (MDPI, 2020-07-18) Medrano, Josh; Jaffe, Joshua; Lombardi, Doug; Holzer, Margaret A.; Roemmele, Christopher
    Socially-relevant and controversial topics, such as water issues, are subject to differences in the explanations that scientists and the public (herein, students) find plausible. Students need to be more evaluative of the validity of explanations (e.g., explanatory models) based on evidence when addressing such topics. We compared two activities where students weighed connections between lines of evidence and explanations. In one activity, students were given four evidence statements and two models (one scientific and one non-scientific alternative); in the other, students chose four out of eight evidence statements and three models (two scientific and one non-scientific). Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that both activities engaged students’ evaluations and differentially shifted students’ plausibility judgments and knowledge. A structural equation model suggested that students’ evaluation may influence post-instructional plausibility and knowledge; when students chose their lines of evidence and explanatory models, their evaluations were deeper, with stronger shifts toward a scientific stance and greater levels of post-instructional knowledge. The activities may help to develop students’ critical evaluation skills, a scientific practice that is key to understanding both scientific content and science as a process. Although effect sizes were modest, the results provided critical information for the final development and testing stage of these water resource instructional activities.
  • Item
    Risks and Protective Factors of Hispanic Families and Their Young Children during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    (MDPI, 2022-05-27) Cabrera, Natasha; He, Minxuan; Chen, Yu; Reich, Stephanie M.
    This study examines the risk-related factors during the pandemic and protective factors that might reduce its effects on family functioning in a sample of 161 low-income Hispanic parents in the United States, recruited from an ongoing longitudinal intervention study. They were surveyed about family functioning six months into the pandemic. We focused on the associations between social (e.g., exposure to the virus) and economic (e.g., job loss) pandemic-related risks on parental stress, parenting, and children’s socioemotional problems and skills, as well as the degree to which coparenting support, parents’ positivity, economic support, and access to services and information mitigated (protected) the negative effects of these stressors on family functioning. We found that increases in economic risk were associated with more child competence skills, whereas increases in social risk were associated with less parental engagement. Positivity and economic support moderated the effects of economic risk on parental stress and engagement. These findings show that to intervene effectively with low-income Hispanic families, we need to strengthen and support the resources for coping with adversity.
  • Item
    Social versus non-social behavioral inhibition: Differential prediction from early childhood of long-term psychosocial outcomes
    (Wiley, 2023-06-22) Tan, Enda; Zeytinoglu, Selin; Morales, Santiago; Buzzell, George A.; Almas, Alisa N.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Henderson, Heather; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.
    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperamental style characterized by cautious and fearful behaviors in novel situations. The present multi-method, longitudinal study examined whether young children's observed and parent-reported BI in social versus non-social contexts predicts different long-term psychosocial outcomes. Participants (N = 279) were drawn from a longitudinal study of socioemotional development. BI in social contexts (“social BI”) was measured via children's observed wariness toward unfamiliar adults and peers at 24 and 36 months and parents’ reports of children's social fear/shyness at 24, 36, and 48 months. BI in non-social contexts (“non-social BI”) was measured via children's observed fearful responses to masks and novel toys, and parents’ reports of children's distress to non-social novelty at 9 months and non-social fear at 48 months. At 15 years, anxiety was assessed via adolescent- and parent-reports, and global internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed via parent-reports. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor model fit the BI data significantly better than a single-factor model, providing evidence for the dissociation of BI in social versus non-social contexts. Social BI was uniquely associated with adolescent social anxiety, whereas non-social BI was specifically associated with adolescent separation anxiety. Neither social BI nor non-social BI predicted global internalizing and externalizing problems, providing evidence for the specific relations between BI and anxiety problems. Together, these results suggest that young children's inhibited responses in social versus non-social situations predict different subtypes of anxiety problems in adolescence, highlighting the multifaceted nature of BI and the divergent trajectories of different anxiety problems.
  • Item
    “Acquired” Equals Addition? Associating Verbs with Arithmetic Operations Impacts Word Problem Performance
    (Wiley, 2023-03-29) Jaffe, Joshua Benjamin; Gharibani, Troy; Bolger, Donald Joseph
    Successful word problem performance often requires understanding the linguistic relations between characters and objects. However, the keyword method promotes associating specific words with mathematical operations while neglecting the situational context. Research has thoroughly investigated the detrimental effects of individuals associating relational terminology (e.g., “more”) with mathematical operations (e.g., “addition”). The current study expands upon this line of research by examining whether undergraduate students associate verbs with mathematical operations and if verbal associations affect word problem performance. Similar to relational terminology, the participants associated verbs with operations, which significantly impacted performance. The educational implications are discussed.
  • Item
    Socioeconomic Status and Reading Development: Moving from “Deficit” to “Adaptation” in Neurobiological Models of Experience-Dependent Learning
    (Wiley, 2023-03-15) Taylor, Ellie K.; Abdurokhmonova, Gavkhar; Romeo, Rachel R.
    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the strongest predictors of student reading outcomes, and these disparities have persisted for decades. Relatedly, two underlying skills that are required for successful reading—oral language and executive function (EF)—are also the two neurocognitive domains most affected by SES. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on how SES influences the neurobiology of language, EF, and their intersection, including the proximal factors that drive these relationships. We then consider the burgeoning evidence that SES systematically moderates certain brain–behavior relationships for language and EF, underscoring the importance of considering context in investigations of the neurobiological underpinnings of reading development. Finally, we discuss how disparities in reading may be conceptualized as neurobiological adaptations to adversity rather than deficit models. We conclude that by harnessing children's stress-adapted relative strengths to support reading development, we may address opportunity gaps both ethically and efficaciously.
  • Item
    Annual Research Review: Developmental pathways linking early behavioral inhibition to later anxiety
    (Wiley, 2022-09-19) Fox, Nathan A.; Zeytinoglu, Selin; Valadez, Emilio A.; Buzzell, George A.; Morales, Santiago; Henderson, Heather A.
    Behavioral Inhibition is a temperament identified in the first years of life that enhances the risk for development of anxiety during late childhood and adolescence. Amongst children characterized with this temperament, only around 40 percent go on to develop anxiety disorders, meaning that more than half of these children do not. Over the past 20 years, research has documented within-child and socio-contextual factors that support differing developmental pathways. This review provides a historical perspective on the research documenting the origins of this temperament, its biological correlates, and the factors that enhance or mitigate risk for development of anxiety. We review as well, research findings from two longitudinal cohorts that have identified moderators of behavioral inhibition in understanding pathways to anxiety. Research on these moderators has led us to develop the Detection and Dual Control (DDC) framework to understand differing developmental trajectories among behaviorally inhibited children. In this review, we use this framework to explain why and how specific cognitive and socio-contextual factors influence differential pathways to anxiety versus resilience.
  • Item
    Effects of foster care intervention and caregiving quality on the bidirectional development of executive functions and social skills following institutional rearing
    (Wiley, 2022-08-07) Zeytinoglu, Selin; Tang, Alva; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.; Almas, Alisa N.; Fox, Nathan A.
    Institutional rearing negatively impacts the development of children's social skills and executive functions (EF). However, little is known about whether childhood social skills mediate the effects of the foster care intervention (FCG) and foster caregiving quality following early institutional rearing on EF and social skills in adolescence. We examined (a) whether children's social skills at 8 years mediate the impact of the FCG on the development of EF at ages 12 and 16 years, and (b) whether social skills and EF at ages 8 and 12 mediate the relation between caregiving quality in foster care at 42 months and subsequent social skills and EF at age 16. Participants included abandoned children from Romanian institutions, who were randomly assigned to a FCG (n = 68) or care as usual (n = 68), and a never-institutionalized group (n = 135). At ages 8, 12, and 16, social skills were assessed via caregiver and teacher reports and EF were assessed via the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Caregiving quality of foster caregivers was observed at 42 months. FCG predicted better social skills at 8 years, which in turn predicted better EF in adolescence. Higher caregiver quality in foster care at 42 months predicted better social skills at 8 and 12 years, and better EF at 12 years, which in turn predicted 16-year EF and social skills. These findings suggest that interventions targeting caregiving quality within foster care home environments may have long-lasting positive effects on children's social skills and EF.
  • Item
    Science resource inequalities viewed as less wrong when girls are disadvantaged
    (Wiley, 2022-08-08) Sims, Riley N.; Burkholder, Amanda R.; Killen, Melanie
    In response to some resource inequalities, children give priority to moral concerns. Yet, in others, children show ingroup preferences in their evaluations and resource allocations. The present study built upon this knowledge by investigating children's and young adults’ (N = 144; 5–6-year-olds, Mage = 5.83, SDage = .97; 9–11-year-olds, Mage = 10.74, SDage = .68; and young adults, Mage = 19.92, SDage = 1.10) evaluations and allocation decisions in a science inequality context. Participants viewed vignettes in which male and female groups received unequal amounts of science supplies, then evaluated the acceptability of the resource inequalities, allocated new boxes of science supplies between the groups, and provided justifications for their choices. Results revealed both children and young adults evaluated inequalities of science resources less negatively when girls were disadvantaged than when boys were disadvantaged. Further, 5- to 6-year-old participants and male participants rectified science resource inequalities to a greater extent when the inequality disadvantaged boys compared to when it disadvantaged girls. Generally, participants who used moral reasoning to justify their responses negatively evaluated and rectified the resource inequalities, whereas participants who used group-focused reasoning positively evaluated and perpetuated the inequalities, though some age and participant gender findings emerged. Together, these findings reveal subtle gender biases that may contribute to perpetuating gender-based science inequalities both in childhood and adulthood.
  • Item
    Testing the effectiveness of the Developing Inclusive Youth program: A multisite randomized control trial
    (Wiley, 2022-05-25) Killen, Melanie; Burkholder, Amanda R.; D'Esterre, Alexander P.; Sims, Riley N.; Glidden, Jacquelyn; Yee, Kathryn M.; Luken Raz, Katherine V.; Elenbaas, Laura; Rizzo, Michael T.; Woodward, Bonnie; Samuelson, Arvid; Sweet, Tracy M.; Stapleton, Laura M. Killen, M., Burkholder, A. R., D’Esterre, A. P., Sims, R. N., Glidden, J., Yee, K. M., Luken Raz, K. V., Elenbaas, L., Rizzo, M. T., Woodward, B., Samuelson, A., Sweet, T. M., Stapleton, L. M. (2022). Testing the effectiveness of the Developing Inclusive Youth program: A multisite randomized control trial. Child Development, 93, 732–750.
    The Developing Inclusive Youth program is a classroom-based, individually administered video tool that depicts peer-based social and racial exclusion, combined with teacher-led discussions. A multisite randomized control trial was implemented with 983 participants (502 females; 58.5% White, 41.5% Ethnic/racial minority; Mage = 9.64 years) in 48 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade classrooms across six schools. Children in the program were more likely to view interracial and same-race peer exclusion as wrong, associate positive traits with peers of different racial, ethnic, and gender backgrounds, and report play with peers from diverse backgrounds than were children in the control group. Many approaches are necessary to achieve antiracism in schools. This intervention is one component of this goal for developmental science.
  • Item
    Commentary: Recognizing our similarities and celebrating our differences – parenting across cultures as a lens toward social justice and equity
    (Wiley, 2022-03-07) Cabrera, Natasha J.
    Lansford (2022) has aptly and eloquently reviewed the vast scholarly research on cross-cultural parenting and concludes that similarities in parenting norms and behaviors across cultures reflect universally adaptive behaviors for children’s development. Culture-specific differences are due largely to environmental constraints and affordances as well as cultural norms for expected behavior. This is an exemplar review that tells a clear story of what we have learned from the decades of research on this topic and lays the foundation for future scholarship. Specially compelling is Lansford’s argument that we need to take stock of what we know and conduct more of this type of research because the majority of what we have now is biased and does not represent the parenting practices of an increasingly diverse population. In this commentary, I provide some context for the value and potential pitfalls of cross-cultural research; discuss the importance of theoretically driven research; discuss the benefits of cross-cultural research; and conclude with some ideas for future investigations.
  • Item
    A hierarchical latent space network model for mediation
    (Cambridge University Press, 2022-05-30) Sweet, Tracy M.; Adhikari, Samrachana
    For interventions that affect how individuals interact, social network data may aid in understanding the mechanisms through which an intervention is effective. Social networks may even be an intermediate outcome observed prior to end of the study. In fact, social networks may also mediate the effects of the intervention on the outcome of interest, and Sweet (2019) introduced a statistical model for social networks as mediators in network-level interventions. We build on their approach and introduce a new model in which the network is a mediator using a latent space approach. We investigate our model through a simulation study and a real-world analysis of teacher advice-seeking networks.
  • Item
    Maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior problems: Attachment security as a protective factor
    (Cambridge University Press, 2022-01-31) Whittenburg, Paige N.; Stern, Jessica A.; Brett, Bonnie E.; Straske, M. Davis; Cassidy, Jude
    Maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) have been linked to both child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Theory suggests that child attachment security may be a protective factor against the negative effects of MDS. This study examined child attachment security as a buffer of the link between MDS and child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at two time points in a predominantly African American sample. Participants included mothers (N = 164; M age = 29.68 years; 76% African American) and their preschool-aged children (60% girls; M age = 44.67 months) recruited from four Head Start centers in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore, Maryland. MDS were concurrently associated with child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at both time points. No significant main effects of child attachment security on behavior problems emerged; however, child attachment moderated the association between MDS and child internalizing behavior problems at Time 2, such that MDS predicted greater child internalizing problems when attachment security was low, and the effect was attenuated when attachment security was high. No interaction emerged for child externalizing problems. Findings suggest that secure attachment in early childhood can serve as a protective factor in the context of parental risk. We discuss implications for intervention and the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology.
  • Item
    The influence of home environmental factors on kindergarten children’s addition strategy use
    (Frontiers, 2023-01-11) DePascale, Mary; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Ramani, Geetha B.
    Young children vary widely in their levels of math knowledge, their abilities to solve math problems, and the strategies they use to solve math problems. As much of later math builds on children’s early understanding of basic math facts and problem-solving strategies, understanding influences on children’s early problem solving is important. Few studies, however, have examined the home environment in relation to children’s strategy use during arithmetic problems. We examined how both structural characteristics of children’s home environments, such as socioeconomic status (SES), as well as the learning environment, such as engagement in math and literacy activities at home, related to their use of problem-solving strategies for numerical addition problems. Kindergarten children from diverse backgrounds completed a measure of addition problem solving and strategy use, including simple and complex numerical problems. Strategies were coded based on a combination of accuracy and strategy sophistication, with higher scores indicating problems solved correctly with more sophisticated strategies. Parents completed a home activities questionnaire, reporting the frequency with which they and their child had engaged in math and literacy activities at home over the past month. An exploratory factor analysis identified three components of the home activities - a basic activities factor, an advanced math activities factor, and a literacy activities factor. Findings indicated that SES related to children’s strategy sophistication, and frequency of engaging in advanced math and literacy activities at home predicted strategy sophistication, however, engaging in activities at home did not moderate the relations between SES and strategy sophistication. This suggests that family engagement in activities at home may promote early arithmetic skills, and that the role of home environmental characteristics should be considered in children’s arithmetic strategy use and performance over development.
  • Item
    Claims of wrongdoing by outgroup members heighten children's ingroup biases
    (Elsevier, 2022-10) Glidden, Jacquelyn; D'Esterre, Alexander P.; Butler, Lucas P.; Killen, Melanie
    Little is known about how group bias may impact children's acceptance of unsubstantiated claims. Most children view cheating as unfair. However, in competitive situations, when ambiguity surrounds the potential intention to cheat, group affiliation may lead children to support claims of cheating based solely on the team affiliation of the claimant, even when those claims are not clearly substantiated. Therefore, it may be particularly important to consider the role ingroup bias may play in children's accusations of cheating in a competitive intergroup context. The current study investigated 4–10 year old children's (N = 137, MAge = 6.71 years, SDAge = 1.49; 47 % female) evaluations of ambiguous acts and unverified claims about those acts in a competitive, intergroup context. Results showed that children initially viewed an ambiguous act similarly, regardless of team affiliation, but demonstrated increasing ingroup biases after claims of wrongdoing were introduced. Implications for how unsubstantiated claims may impact intergroup interactions more broadly will be discussed.
  • Item
    9M Parent Number Input
    (2023-04-10) Mix, Kelly S.; Cabrera, Natasha
    The dataset contains parent math talk scores derived from coding of videorecorded home visits (Cabrera & Reich, 2017) completed when children were 9 months of age, as well as numeracy outcome scores collected when children were 42 months old. Coding was completed between June 2021 and December, 2022.
  • Item
    Unconditional cash transfers and maternal substance use: findings from a randomized control trial of low-income mothers with infants in the U.S.
    (Springer Nature, 2022-05-05) Yoo, Paul Y.; Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine; Fox, Nathan A.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah; Noble, Kimberly G.
    Policy debates over anti-poverty programs are often marked by pernicious stereotypes suggesting that direct cash transfers to people residing in poverty encourage health-risking behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and other substance use. Causal evidence on this issue is limited in the U.S. Given the prominent role of child allowances and other forms of cash assistance in the 2021 American Rescue Plan and proposed Build Back Better legislation, evidence on the extent to which a monthly unconditional cash gift changes substance use patterns among low-income mothers with infants warrants attention, particularly in the context of economic supports that can help improve early environments of children. We employ a multi-site, parallel-group, randomized control trial in which 1,000 low-income mothers in the U.S. with newborns were recruited from hospitals shortly after the infant’s birth and randomly assigned to receive either a substantial ($333) or a nominal ($20) monthly cash gift during the early years of the infant’s life. We estimate the effect of the unconditional cash transfer on self-report measures of maternal substance use (i.e., alcohol, cigarette, or opioid use) and household expenditures on alcohol and cigarettes after one year of cash gifts. The cash gift difference of $313 per month had small and statistically nonsignificant impacts on group differences in maternal reports of substance use and household expenditures on alcohol or cigarettes. Effect sizes ranged between − 0.067 standard deviations and + 0.072 standard deviations. The estimated share of the $313 group difference spent on alcohol and tobacco was less than 1%. Our randomized control trial of monthly cash gifts to mothers with newborn infants finds that a cash gift difference of $313 per month did not significantly change maternal use of alcohol, cigarettes, or opioids or household expenditures on alcohol or cigarettes. Although the structure of our cash gifts differs somewhat from that of a government-provided child allowance, our null effect findings suggest that unconditional cash transfers aimed at families living in poverty are unlikely to induce large changes in substance use and expenditures by recipients.
  • Item
    Group Norms Influence Children’s Expectations About Status Based on Wealth and Popularity
    (Frontiers, 2022-05-11) Yee, Kathryn M.; Glidden, Jacquelyn; Killen, Melanie
    Children’s understanding of status and group norms influence their expectations about social encounters. However, status is multidimensional and children may perceive status stratification (i.e., high- and low-status) differently across multiple status dimensions (i.e., wealth and popularity). The current study investigated the effect of status level and norms on children’s expectations about intergroup affiliation in wealth and popularity contexts. Participants (N = 165; age range: 5–10 years; Mage = 7.72 years) were randomly assigned to hear two scenarios where a high- or low-status target affiliated with opposite-status groups based on either wealth or popularity. In one scenario, the group expressed an inclusive norm. In the other scenario, the group expressed an exclusive norm. For each scenario, children made predictions about children’s expectations for a target to acquire social resources. Novel findings indicated that children associated wealth status to some extent, but they drew stronger inferences from the wealth dimension than from the popularity dimension. In contrast to previous evidence that children distinguish between high- and low-status groups, we did not find evidence to support this in the context of the current study. In addition, norms of exclusion diminished children’s expectations for acquiring social resources from wealth and popularity groups but this effect was more pronounced between wealth groups. We found age differences in children’s expectations in regards to norms, but not in regards to status. The implications of how these effects, in addition to lack of effects, bear on children’s expectations about acquiring resources are discussed.
  • Item
    Phonological Training and Word Learning in a Novel Language
    (Frontiers, 2022-02-17) Li, Yixun; Wang, Min; Li, Chuchu; Li, Man
    In reading Chinese words, learners may process segment and tone either separately or as an integral unit, as evidenced in previous research. The present study compared two ways—Segmental versus Whole-Syllable-Based Training—for improving learners’ phonological and word learning in Chinese as a novel language, while controlling for learners’ musical ability, an important factor that may contribute to phonological learning. Forty-two American college students learned Chinese words represented by Pinyin, a Romanized script which denotes the pronunciation of Chinese characters. Before the training, all participants were introduced to the phonology and Pinyin system. Then, they were trained on the pronunciation and meaning of the Pinyin words with or without an emphasis on separating the tonal from segmental information. All participants’ musical ability was assessed using a musical ability test. Learning outcomes were measured through tasks of same-different phonological judgment, tone identification, and word comprehension. Results showed the equal success of the two training methods, probably due to the consistent involvement of Pinyin and learner’s reliance on segment and tone as an integral unit rather than separate cues in phonological and word learning. Furthermore, musical ability seems to play a role in phonological and word learning among novel learners of Chinese.