Human Development & Quantitative Methodology Research Works

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 17
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    9M Parent Math Talk Codes
    (2023-04-10) Mix, Kelly; Cabrera, Natasha
    The dataset contains parent math talk scores derived from coding of videorecorded home visits (Cabrera & Reich, 2017) completed when children were 9 months of age, as well as numeracy outcome scores collected when children were 42 months old. Coding was completed between June 2021 and December, 2022.
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    Unconditional cash transfers and maternal substance use: findings from a randomized control trial of low-income mothers with infants in the U.S.
    (Springer Nature, 2022-05-05) Yoo, Paul Y.; Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine; Fox, Nathan A.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah; Noble, Kimberly G.
    Policy debates over anti-poverty programs are often marked by pernicious stereotypes suggesting that direct cash transfers to people residing in poverty encourage health-risking behaviors such as smoking, drinking, and other substance use. Causal evidence on this issue is limited in the U.S. Given the prominent role of child allowances and other forms of cash assistance in the 2021 American Rescue Plan and proposed Build Back Better legislation, evidence on the extent to which a monthly unconditional cash gift changes substance use patterns among low-income mothers with infants warrants attention, particularly in the context of economic supports that can help improve early environments of children. We employ a multi-site, parallel-group, randomized control trial in which 1,000 low-income mothers in the U.S. with newborns were recruited from hospitals shortly after the infant’s birth and randomly assigned to receive either a substantial ($333) or a nominal ($20) monthly cash gift during the early years of the infant’s life. We estimate the effect of the unconditional cash transfer on self-report measures of maternal substance use (i.e., alcohol, cigarette, or opioid use) and household expenditures on alcohol and cigarettes after one year of cash gifts. The cash gift difference of $313 per month had small and statistically nonsignificant impacts on group differences in maternal reports of substance use and household expenditures on alcohol or cigarettes. Effect sizes ranged between − 0.067 standard deviations and + 0.072 standard deviations. The estimated share of the $313 group difference spent on alcohol and tobacco was less than 1%. Our randomized control trial of monthly cash gifts to mothers with newborn infants finds that a cash gift difference of $313 per month did not significantly change maternal use of alcohol, cigarettes, or opioids or household expenditures on alcohol or cigarettes. Although the structure of our cash gifts differs somewhat from that of a government-provided child allowance, our null effect findings suggest that unconditional cash transfers aimed at families living in poverty are unlikely to induce large changes in substance use and expenditures by recipients.
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    Group Norms Influence Children’s Expectations About Status Based on Wealth and Popularity
    (Frontiers, 2022-05-11) Yee, Kathryn M.; Glidden, Jacquelyn; Killen, Melanie
    Children’s understanding of status and group norms influence their expectations about social encounters. However, status is multidimensional and children may perceive status stratification (i.e., high- and low-status) differently across multiple status dimensions (i.e., wealth and popularity). The current study investigated the effect of status level and norms on children’s expectations about intergroup affiliation in wealth and popularity contexts. Participants (N = 165; age range: 5–10 years; Mage = 7.72 years) were randomly assigned to hear two scenarios where a high- or low-status target affiliated with opposite-status groups based on either wealth or popularity. In one scenario, the group expressed an inclusive norm. In the other scenario, the group expressed an exclusive norm. For each scenario, children made predictions about children’s expectations for a target to acquire social resources. Novel findings indicated that children associated wealth status to some extent, but they drew stronger inferences from the wealth dimension than from the popularity dimension. In contrast to previous evidence that children distinguish between high- and low-status groups, we did not find evidence to support this in the context of the current study. In addition, norms of exclusion diminished children’s expectations for acquiring social resources from wealth and popularity groups but this effect was more pronounced between wealth groups. We found age differences in children’s expectations in regards to norms, but not in regards to status. The implications of how these effects, in addition to lack of effects, bear on children’s expectations about acquiring resources are discussed.
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    Phonological Training and Word Learning in a Novel Language
    (Frontiers, 2022-02-17) Li, Yixun; Wang, Min; Li, Chuchu; Li, Man
    In reading Chinese words, learners may process segment and tone either separately or as an integral unit, as evidenced in previous research. The present study compared two ways—Segmental versus Whole-Syllable-Based Training—for improving learners’ phonological and word learning in Chinese as a novel language, while controlling for learners’ musical ability, an important factor that may contribute to phonological learning. Forty-two American college students learned Chinese words represented by Pinyin, a Romanized script which denotes the pronunciation of Chinese characters. Before the training, all participants were introduced to the phonology and Pinyin system. Then, they were trained on the pronunciation and meaning of the Pinyin words with or without an emphasis on separating the tonal from segmental information. All participants’ musical ability was assessed using a musical ability test. Learning outcomes were measured through tasks of same-different phonological judgment, tone identification, and word comprehension. Results showed the equal success of the two training methods, probably due to the consistent involvement of Pinyin and learner’s reliance on segment and tone as an integral unit rather than separate cues in phonological and word learning. Furthermore, musical ability seems to play a role in phonological and word learning among novel learners of Chinese.
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    Examination of Early Childhood Temperament of Shyness and Social Avoidance and Associations With Cardiometabolic Health in Young Adulthood
    (American Medical Association, 2022-01-27) Tang, Alva; Fox, Nathan A.; Slopen, Natalie
    A child temperament characterized by shyness and avoidance of social interactions is associated with poor peer relationships and emotional problems, yet its long-term associations with adult cardiometabolic health are largely unknown. To examine whether a childhood temperament characterized by shyness and avoidance of social interactions is associated with poor cardiometabolic health. This cohort study included participants who were recruited at birth between April 1991 to December 1992 as part of a prospective longitudinal cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Follow-up assessments of health behaviors and cardiometabolic health extended into young adulthood (age 24 years). Data analysis was conducted between April and October 2021. Parent reports of temperament across ages 3 to 6 years were used to derive childhood temperament profiles in a longitudinal clustering analysis. Accelerometry measures of adolescent moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) from ages 11 to 15 years and adult social occupation class were examined as mediators using path analyses. At age 24 years, 9 cardiometabolic outcomes were measured through anthropometrics and fasting blood samples: triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, glycated hemoglobin levels, insulin levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Of the 9491 participants included in the analyses, 4908 (51.7%) were male, and 8668 of 9027 (96.0%) were White. Four childhood temperament profiles were identified: (1) introverted (2810 [29.6%]), (2) extraverted (2527 [26.6%]), (3) conflicted-shy (2335 [24.6%]), and (4) avoidant-shy (1819 [19.2%]). Lower childhood socioeconomic status was a precursor associated with the development of an avoidant-shy temperament (eg, introvert vs avoidant-shy: odds ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.23). Path analyses showed that avoidant-shy children spent less time in MVPA in adolescence compared with all other temperament profiles (eg, introvert vs avoidant-shy: β = 0.10; b = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.14-0.35; P < .001), which in turn was associated with a cluster of cardiometabolic indices at age 24 years, including lower HDL cholesterol levels (β = 0.07; b = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.12-1.78; P = .03) and higher LDL cholesterol levels (β = −0.07; b = −1.69; 95% CI = −3.32 to −0.06; P = .04), insulin levels (β = −0.10; b = −0.57; 95% CI, −1.04 to −0.10; P = .02), diastolic blood pressure (β = −0.09; b = −0.59; 95% CI, −0.97 to −0.21; P = .002), and body mass index (β = −0.07; b = −0.32; 95% CI, −0.56 to −0.07; P = .01). Additionally, children classified as avoidant-shy attained lower social occupation classes at age 24 years, which was concurrently associated with higher BMI (β = 0.06; b = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.08-0.35; P = .002). Notably, these results were adjusted for a range of early developmental precursors and confounders, suggesting an independent association of temperament. In this cohort study, less engagement in physical activity across adolescence seemed to be a developmental mechanism connecting an avoidant-shy childhood temperament and greater cardiometabolic risks over the life course. Future studies should examine the efficacy of physical activity and social skill programs that specially target the needs of different children to thereby reduce cardiometabolic risks.