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    Family Rejection and LGBTQ+ Asian Americans’ Psychological Distress and Disordered Eating: The Role of Conflicts in Allegiances and Familial Shame
    (2024) Pease, M V.; Le, Thomas P.; Ahn, Lydia HaRim
    LGBTQ+ Asian Americans experience unique psychological health concerns at the intersection of multiple forms of marginalization. White supremacist, cisheteronormative, and colonial ideals and their structural and interpersonal manifestations may encourage family rejection of LGBTQ+ identities within Asian American family units. Family shame, conflicts in allegiances, and internalized anti-LGBTQ+ stigma were hypothesized as mediators in the association between family rejection and psychological distress and disordered eating. The current study examined family rejection and its impacts on psychological distress and disordered eating in a sample of LGBTQ+ Asian American adults (N = 155; MAge = 24.26; 30.3% Gender Diverse) using a cross-sectional survey design and path analysis. There was a significant serial mediation such that family rejection was positively associated with conflicts in allegiances, which was positively associated with familial shame, which was positively associated with psychological distress (B = .12, p = .01). The same serial mediation was nonsignificant for disordered eating (B = .04, p = .26). Results indicate the importance of considering conflicts in allegiances, family shame, and the interpersonal dynamics of LGBTQ+ Asian Americans in understanding experiences of psychological distress and disordered eating. Implications are drawn for further research, clinical work, and broader efforts addressing the larger sociocultural environment that encourages familial rejection of LGBTQ+ identity.
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    Radical Hope: Re-Contextualizing Oral Histories from Deindustrialized Mining Communities
    (International Journal of Heritage Studies, 2024) Paul A. Shackel; Author
    The anthracite coal mining landscape of northeastern Pennsylvania is in ruin, a by-product of two centuries of unchecked capitalism. Much of the land is stripped of its timber and surface mines lay abandoned. The industry began its decline after WWI and virtually collapsed during the post-WWII era. Waste piles of coal litter the landscape, and the streams and rivers are considered dead because of the minerals and high acid content of water draining from abandoned mines. Many scholars have written about the extreme work conditions the coal workers faced, the demise of the coal industry, and the impact of deindustrialization on the region’s people. Often overlooked is how members of the mining communities had a radical hope. Radical hope helps oppressed people to see that another condition and another world is possible, although not guaranteed. Re-examining oral histories from the anthracite region recorded in the 1970s, when the industry was in its great decline, demonstrates how these mining communities anticipated a future good, understanding the struggle to attain it.
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    Past and Present: Immigration and Museum Exhibitions in the Anthracite Coal Region
    (Museum Anthropology, 2024) Aryn Neurock Schriner; Paul A. Shackel; Authors
    Northeastern Pennsylvania was home to the anthracite coal industry for about two centuries. The area was originally settled by various waves of immigrants, first from Western, then Southern and Eastern Europe. The new immigrant miners faced many forms of prejudice and were exploited in a system of unchecked capitalism. They were racialized and placed at the bottom of the job hierarchy. Some capitalists did not consider them human and, therefore, not deserving of safe working conditions, decent housing, and equal pay. At the turn of the twenty-first century, a new wave of Hispanic immigrants from the Caribbean, Mexico, and South and Central America entered the region to work mainly in low-paying fulfillment center jobs. Their arrival is being met with various forms of xenophobia, much like the immigrant miners faced over a century ago. The online exhibition “We Are Anthracite,” hosted by the Anthracite Heritage Museum, addresses the call from the American Alliance of Museums (AAM) for museums to be civically engaged, build social capital and connecting new populations to place. The exhibition bridges the experiences between the past coal mining communities and new Hispanic immigrants. The state operated museum hosting this exhibition lends validity to the new immigrants’ place in this region, creating a narrative that their experiences are similar to the region’s inhabitants’ ancestors. By connecting common experiences, past and present, we are creating a form of bridging social capital that connects these different populations. While the northeastern Pennsylvania immigrant story is not well-known, it is rich and complex, like many Rust Belt communities undergoing similar major demographic shifts.
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    Talking Culture: Women in the production of community in the northwest Amazon
    (American Anthropologist, 2003) Chernela, Janet
    Taking the Northwest Amazon of Brazil as its example, this article argues for the analytic concept of a “speech culture,” combining, but heuristically separating, speech practice and language ideology. In the Northwest Amazon, an ideology of language establishes an equivalence between linguistic performance and descent group belonging. In contrast to the fixed, normative notions of groupness, this article explores the dynamic construction of social relations through women’s ritualized wept greeting speech. In these interactions, linguistic differentiation is countered by the experience of a single speech act based upon shared principles with organized participation in and by different linguistic codes. Through the collaborative nature of the speech act a common ground is produced and revealed. The community in this sense emerges as a cultural artifact whose production is largely the work of women. Through these speech interactions—of similar sentiments and meanings across different linguistic codes—women of the Northwest Amazon construct a community of talk.
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    Disparities in Toxic Chemical Exposures and Associated Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: A Scoping Review and Systematic Evidence Map of the Epidemiological Literature
    (2023-09-27) Payne-Sturges, Devon C.; Taiwo, Tanya Khemet; Ellickson, Kristie; Mullen, Haley; Tchangalova, Nedelina ; Anderko, Laura ; Chen, Aimin ; Swanson, Maureen
    BACKGROUND: Children are routinely exposed to chemicals known or suspected of harming brain development. Targeting Environmental Neuro-Development Risks (Project TENDR), an alliance of more than 50 leading scientists, health professionals, and advocates, is working to protect children from these toxic chemicals and pollutants, especially the disproportionate exposures experienced by children from families with low incomes and families of color. OBJECTIVE: This scoping review was initiated to map existing literature on disparities in neurodevelopmental outcomes for U.S. children from population groups who have been historically economically/socially marginalized and exposed to seven exemplar neurotoxicants: combustion-related air pollution (AP), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), organophosphate pesticides (OPs), phthalates (Phth), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). METHODS: Systematic literature searches for the seven exemplar chemicals, informed by the Population, Exposure, Comparator, Outcome (PECO) framework, were conducted through 18 November 2022, using PubMed, CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), GreenFILE (EBSCO), and Web of Science sources. We examined these studies regarding authors’ conceptualization and operationalization of race, ethnicity, and other indicators of sociodemographic and socioeconomic disadvantage; whether studies presented data on exposure and outcome disparities and the patterns of those disparities; and the evidence of effect modification by or interaction with race and ethnicity. RESULTS: Two hundred twelve individual studies met the search criteria and were reviewed, resulting in 218 studies or investigations being included in this review. AP and Pb were the most commonly studied exposures. The most frequently identified neurodevelopmental outcomes were cognitive and behavioral/psychological. Approximately a third (74 studies) reported investigations of interactions or effect modification with 69% (51 of 74 studies) reporting the presence of interactions or effect modification. However, less than half of the studies presented data on disparities in the outcome or the exposure, and fewer conducted formal tests of heterogeneity. Ninety-two percent of the 165 articles that examined race and ethnicity did not provide an explanation of their constructs for these variables, creating an incomplete picture. DISCUSSION: As a whole, the studies we reviewed indicated a complex story about how racial and ethnic minority and low-income children may be disproportionately harmed by exposures to neurotoxicants, and this has implications for targeting interventions, policy change, and other necessary investments to eliminate these health disparities. We provide recommendations on improving environmental epidemiological studies on environmental health disparities. To achieve environmental justice and health equity, we recommend concomitant strategies to eradicate both neurotoxic chemical exposures and systems that perpetuate social inequities.
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    Anthracite Memories: Semantic Tagging and Coal Mining Oral Histories
    (2023) Paul A. Shackel
    Oral histories are a critical source of information about lived experiences of past events. They have been analyzed both for their form – linguistically as texts, performances, and expressive accounts – and their content for understanding historic events and personal experiences. Here we focus on sentiment analysis approaches frequently applied to big data research questions, but less often utilized by anthropologists working with oral histories. Oral histories collected half a century ago in the anthracite mining communities of northeastern Pennsylvania are examined by considering methodological and historical questions. This project explores how oral history and data science might be productively combined to understand these now historic communities' everyday lives and working conditions. Bakhtin's (1981) concept of chronotope helps us understand the memory of these anthracite coal mining communities' daily life and working conditions.
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    The PhotoDissociation Region Toolbox: Software and Models for Astrophysical Analysis
    (The Astronomical Journal, 2023-01-15) Pound, Marc W.; Wolfire, Mark G.
    The PhotoDissociation Region Toolbox provides comprehensive, easy-to-use, public software tools and models that enable an understanding of the interaction of the light of young, luminous, massive stars with the gas and dust in the Milky Way and in other galaxies. It consists of an open-source Python toolkit and photodissociation region (PDR) models for analysis of infrared and millimeter/submillimeter line and continuum observations obtained by ground-based and suborbital telescopes, and astrophysics space missions. PDRs include all of the neutral gas in the interstellar medium where far-ultraviolet photons dominate the chemistry and/or heating. In regions of massive star formation, PDRs are created at the boundaries between the H II regions and neutral molecular cloud, as photons with energies 6 eV < hν < 13.6 eV photodissociate molecules and photoionize metals. The gas is heated by photoelectrons from small grains and large molecules and cools mostly through far-infrared (FIR) fine-structure lines like [O I] and [C II]. The models are created from state-of-the art PDR codes that include molecular freezeout; recent collision, chemical, and photorates; new chemical pathways, such as oxygen chemistry; and allow for both clumpy and uniform media. The models predict the emergent intensities of many spectral lines and FIR continuum. The tools find the best-fit models to the observations and provide insight into the physical conditions and chemical makeup of the gas and dust. The PDR Toolbox enables novel analysis of data from telescopes such as the Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer, Herschel, the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite, the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, and the JWST.
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    Black Sexual Minority Adults’ Avoidance of Professional Mental Health Care
    (Psychiatric Services, 2023) Williams, Natasha D.; Turpin, Rodman E.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.; King-Marshall, Evelyn C.; Fish, Jessica N.
    Objective: The authors sought to determine whether Black sexual minority individuals were more likely than White sexual minority individuals to postpone or avoid professional mental health care (PMHC) and, if so, to identify the reasons for postponing or avoiding care. Methods: Analyses were conducted with a subsample of cisgender Black (N=78) and White (N=398) sexual minority individuals from a larger survey of U.S. adults administered via MTurk in 2020 (N=1,012). Logistic regression models were used to identify racial differences in overall postponement or avoidance of care as well as differences in the prevalence of each of nine reasons for postponing or avoiding care. Results: Black sexual minority individuals were more likely than their White counterparts to report ever postponing or avoiding PMHC (average marginal effect [AME]=13.7 percentage points, 95% CI=5.4–21.9). Black sexual minority people also were more likely than their White counterparts to cite beliefs that they should work out their problems on their own (AME=13.1 percentage points, 95% CI=1.2–24.9) or with family and friends (AME=17.5 percentage points, 95% CI=6.0–29.1) and to cite providers’ refusal to treat them (AME=17.4 percentage points, 95% CI=7.6–27.1) as reasons for postponing or avoiding care. Conclusions: Black sexual minority individuals were more likely than their White counterparts to report delaying or avoiding PMHC. Personal beliefs about managing mental health and providers’ refusal to offer treatment influenced Black sexual minority individuals’ willingness or ability to seek PMHC.