Counseling, Higher Education & Special Education Research Works

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Now showing 1 - 13 of 13
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    Peer Influence during Adolescence: The Moderating Role of Parental Support
    (MDPI, 2021-04-17) Havewala, Mazneen; Bowker, Julie C.; Smith, Kelly A.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Laursen, Brett; Felton, Julia W.; Rubin, Kenneth H.
    Although many studies show that peers influence the development of adolescent internalizing and externalizing difficulties, few have considered both internalizing and externalizing difficulties in the same study, and fewer have considered the contributions of parents. Using a longitudinal sample of 385 adolescents, the contributions of best friends’ internalizing and externalizing difficulties (as assessed in Grade 6; G6: Mage = 13.64 years; 53% female; 40% ethnic or racial minority) were examined as they predicted subsequent adolescent internalizing and externalizing difficulties (at G8); in addition, the moderating role of both maternal and paternal support (at G6) was explored. Structural equation modelling revealed that best friend internalizing difficulties predicted decreases, but that best friend externalizing difficulties predicted increases in adolescents’ externalizing difficulties over time. Significant interactions involving both maternal and paternal support revealed that the negative impact of a G6 best friend having internalizing problems on later G8 adolescent externalizing problems was stronger at low levels of maternal and paternal support. The findings highlight the complex, and interactive, influences of friends and parents on the development of internalizing and externalizing symptomatology during adolescence, and underscore the importance of targeting both sources of social influence in research and clinical work.
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    Knowing Our True Self and Transforming Suffering toward Peace and Love: Embodying the Wisdom of the Heart Sutra and the Diamond Sutra
    (MDPI, 2022-04-28) Lin, Jing; Khoo, Yishin
    The biggest crisis that we are in nowadays is existential, which is the state of not knowing our true natures or our true selves; hence, we suffer from deep anxiety and we fail to find safety and a way to ground ourselves. In this article, we share our practical experiences of encountering and practicing the teachings of two important Buddhist scriptures: the Heart Sutra and the Diamond Sutra. We show how both sutras, and especially their teachings on emptiness, allow us to remove our attachment to a sense of a separate self, which deepens our understanding about life, and transforms suffering toward peace and love. We further demonstrate the importance of meditation, contemplative chanting and reading, and experimentation with Buddhist teachings as pathways towards understanding our true natures. In sum, both sutras help us to go beyond the materialistic, capitalistic, narrow vision of who we are and to access the higher dimension of our existence, which allows us to discover our cosmic selves in the ultimate reality. It is through experiencing one’s true self that one gains a greater capacity to seek social transformation in times of crisis.
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    “We’re Not Going to Overcome Institutional Bias by Doing Nothing”: Latinx/a/o Student Affairs Professionals as Advocates for Equity
    (MDPI, 2022-10-18) Espino, Michelle M.; Ariza, Juanita
    Higher education institutions continue to be contested environments where the goals of equity and inclusion are often at odds with the permanence of institutional racism. Through a multi-case study of 19 Latinx/a/o mid-level administrators who worked at 16 predominantly white, private four-year universities, the authors uncovered the ways that (a) private universities grant agency to Latinx/a/o mid-level administrators to serve student needs but restrict agency to address the inequitable organizational structures; (b) constituent groups within private universities, namely faculty, mark the racialized boundaries of power and decision-making through credentialing; and (c) private universities use silence as a means of controlling Latinx/a/o mid-level professionals administrators’ equity work. Although Latinx/a/o mid-level administrators have a significant role to play in advancing equity work inside higher education institutions, these racialized organizations will create barriers that maintain whiteness and white interests. Without addressing power structures and the bureaucracy of decision-making at private institutions, progress on equity throughout the organizational structure may be limited. Implications for research and practice for Latinx/a/o/ administrators are discussed.
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    Preschoolers’ temperament and social functioning in novel and routine contexts
    (Frontiers, 2022-12-22) Vaughan, Helena Shoplik; Teglasi, Hedwig
    Introduction: The centrality of social competence to children’s short and long-term well-being has sparked interest in the factors that contribute to its development, including temperament, a set of biologically based dispositions. A large body of work documents two types of temperamental dispositions associated with young children’s social functioning: reactivity and regulation. There is consensus about the detrimental effects of negative reactive tendencies, called negative affective reactivity (NA), and about the beneficial effects of regulatory tendencies, called effortful control (EC), on social functioning. Another reactive component of temperament, Extraversion/Surgency (E/S) is less consistent in its relation with social functioning. Although NA is exacerbated by lack of familiarity, its contribution to social functioning in novel and routine contexts has not been systematically addressed. Methods: To test this study’s hypotheses, we devised a structured interview of adaptive responsiveness in context (ARC) which was completed by parents of preschoolers along with a comprehensive temperament questionnaire. Additionally, children completed an individually administered task measuring emotion-situation knowledge (N = 92) and their teachers completed a standard social competence questionnaire. Results and Discussion: A path analysis that controlled for variance shared across contexts and temperamental traits showed that NA was the only unique predictor of social functioning in the Novel context, that EC was the only unique predictor of social functioning in the Routine context and that E/S was not a unique predictor of social functioning in either context. Bivariate analyses, conducted without controlling for context overlap, showed all reactive emotional traits (subsumed within NA and E/S) to correlate exclusively with ARC in the Novel contexts. However, regulatory traits showed a mixed pattern. Inhibitory Control correlated with ARC in both contexts but more highly in the Routine context, and Perceptual Sensitivity correlated with ARC in the Novel context.
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    A Natural History of the Development of Talent: Illustrations from the Career of John L. Holland (1919 – 2008)
    (2020-03-08) Gottfredson, Gary D.
    A pdf version of a slide presentation about the life and contributions to career psychology, counseling and higher education of John L. Holland. Includes biographical material describing his life, education, and work from college days throughout his life. Includes information about the nature of his research and professional contributions, his work settings, the influence of others on his life and work, and his influence on others. The slides may be useful in graduate seminars or courses on career development, career assessment, history of psychology or counseling, or theory development. One file contains only the slides for use when making a presentation and a second file contains slides with notes pages that provide instructors with hints for making a presentation as well as guidance on reading material for instructors and students. This presentation evolved from an invited address to the Maryland Career Development Association a few years after Holland’s death. The topic of the presentation was expanded into a book containing an autobiography of Holland as well as other material. The present slides refer to the book as well as other ancillary sources for graduate courses or seminars.
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    Undoing disparities in faculty workloads: A randomized trial experiment
    (PLoS, 2018-12-19) O'Meara, KerryAnn; Jaeger, Audrey; Misra, Joya; Lennartz, Courtney; Kuvaeva, Alexandra
    We conducted a randomized control study to improve equity in how work is taken up, assigned and rewarded in academic departments. We used a four-part intervention targeting routine work practices, department conditions, and the readiness of faculty to intervene to shape more equitable outcomes over an 18-month period. Our goal was to (a) increase the number of routine work practices that department faculty could enact to ensure equity, (b) enhance conditions within the department known to positively enhance equity, and (c) improve the action readiness of department faculty to ensure equity in division of labor. Post intervention faculty in participating departments were more likely than before the intervention to report work practices and conditions that support equity and action readiness in their department, and that teaching and service work in their department is fair. Participating departments were significantly more likely than control departments to report practices and conditions that support equity and greater action readiness to address issues of workload equity in their department. Finally, participating department faculty were more likely than control department faculty to report increased self-advocacy and were more likely than control department faculty to report that the distribution of teaching and service work in their department is fair.
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    Parental Autonomy Granting and School Functioning among Chinese Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Adolescents’ Cultural Values
    (Frontiers, 2017-12-13) Wang, Cixin; Do, Kieu Anh; Bao, Leiping; Xia, Yan R.; Wu, Chaorong
    School adjustment and achievement are important indicators of adolescents’ wellbeing; however, few studies have examined the risk and protective factors predicting students’ school adjustment and achievement at the individual, familial, and cultural level. The present study examined the influences of individual and familial factors and cultural values on Chinese adolescents’ school functioning (e.g., school adjustment and grades). It also tested whether cultural values moderated the relationship between parenting and adolescents’ school functioning. Self-report data were collected from a stratified random sample of 2,864 adolescents (51.5% female, mean age = 15.52 years, grade 6th – 12th) from 55 classrooms, in 13 schools in Shanghai, China. The findings suggest that cultural values may influence adolescents’ appraisal of parental autonomy granting, which then impacts their school functioning.
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    Self-concepts of adolescents with learning disabilities: A large-scale database study
    (2005-08-20) Strein, William; Signor-Buhl, Sara
    Using the ELS: 2002 national database, we compared the self-concepts in reading, math, and general academic areas for students with and without identified learning disabilities. Unlike most similar research, students’ measured achievement in reading and math was controlled, thereby effectively comparing students at similar levels of achievement. When controlling for achievement, academic self-concepts were not lower for the students with LD. Similar to other studies, students with LD tended to statistically over-predict their achievement compared to the non-LD group.
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    Urbanicity and Academic Self-Concept
    (2009-02-27) Strein, William; Pickering, Cyril; Grossman, Julie
    The main focus of this study was the relationships between school urbanicity (size of community in which the school is located) and fifth-grade students’ academic self-concepts. Using multi-level modeling methodology (HLM) we were able to investigate “school effects”, net of individual students’ characteristics. School urbanicity had no effect on reading, math, or general academic self-concept. School-level effects were found consistently for aggregate school achievement in reading and math, congruent with Marsh’s Big-Fish-Little-Pond effect. Less consistent school-level effects were found for proportion of minority students and school-average SES. Individual level effects mirrored those reported in other literature with tested achievement having the greatest effect
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    Big Fish and Other School Effects on Academic Self-Concept
    (2010-08-14) Strein, William; Grossman, Juliie
    A substantial amount of research indicates that academic self-concept is a function of both individual characteristics, and school effects that impact on the development of self-perceptions. Few studies have studied a cohort of students as they progress through the transition from elementary to middle school. The present study uses multi-level modeling to examine school effects on students’ academic self-concept in reading and math as they transition from elementary to middle school. Data come from the ECLS-K data set. Few school effects were found, but students’ SES was found to be a strong moderator of the relationship between reading achievement and self-perceptions of students’ ability and interest in reading.
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    Self-Concept and Learning Disabilities: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Results
    (2006-03-31) Strein, William
    Using the ECLS-K national database, this study compared the self-concepts in reading, math, general academic (all-subjects), and peer areas for third-grade students with and without identified learning disabilities. Unlike most similar research on academic self-concept, students’ measured achievement in reading and math was controlled, thereby effectively comparing students at similar levels of achievement. Correlations between achievement and self-concept were small for both LD and non-LD groups. When controlling for achievement, academic self-concepts were not lower for the students with LD. Similar to other studies, students with LD tended to statistically over-predict their achievement compared to the non-LD group. This study extends the Strein and Signor (2005) study that used similar methodology on a national database of high school sophomores.
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    National Study of Living-Learning Programs: 2007 Report of Findings
    (2008-08) Inkelas, Karen
    This comprehensive report of findings presents the results from a survey of over 22,000 undergraduates representing over 40 American postsecondary institutions. The study examines the contributions of participation in a living-learning program on undergraduate student outcomes. Results are presented by institutional type, living-learning program type, longitudinal findings, and outcomes for women who are science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors.