FACE RECOGNITION AND VERIFICATION IN UNCONSTRAINED ENVIRIONMENTS
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Face recognition has been a long standing problem in computer vision. General face recognition is challenging because of large appearance variability due to factors including pose, ambient lighting, expression, size of the face, age, and distance from the camera, etc. There are very accurate techniques to perform face recognition in controlled environments, especially when large numbers of samples are available for each face (individual). However, face identification under uncontrolled( unconstrained) environments or with limited training data is still an unsolved problem. There are two face recognition tasks: face identification (who is who in a probe face set, given a gallery face set) and face verification (same or not, given two faces). In this work, we study both face identification and verification in unconstrained environments. Firstly, we propose a face verification framework that combines Partial Least Squares (PLS) and the One-Shot similarity model. The idea is to describe a face with a large feature set combining shape, texture and color information. PLS regression is applied to perform multi-channel feature weighting on this large feature set. Finally the PLS regression is used to compute the similarity score of an image pair by One-Shot learning (using a fixed negative set). Secondly, we study face identification with image sets, where the gallery and probe are sets of face images of an individual. We model a face set by its covariance matrix (COV) which is a natural 2nd-order statistic of a sample set.By exploring an efficient metric for the SPD matrices, i.e., Log-Euclidean Distance (LED), we derive a kernel function that explicitly maps the covariance matrix from the Riemannian manifold to Euclidean space. Then, discriminative learning is performed on the COV manifold: the learning aims to maximize the between-class COV distance and minimize the within-class COV distance. Sparse representation and dictionary learning have been widely used in face recognition, especially when large numbers of samples are available for each face (individual). Sparse coding is promising since it provides a more stable and discriminative face representation. In the last part of our work, we explore sparse coding and dictionary learning for face verification application. More specifically, in one approach, we apply sparse representations to face verification in two ways via a fix reference set as dictionary. In the other approach, we propose a dictionary learning framework with explicit pairwise constraints, which unifies the discriminative dictionary learning for pair matching (face verification) and classification (face recognition) problems.