Evidence-Based Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Women: 2007 Update

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Mosca, Lori and Banka, Carole L. and Benjamin, Emelia J. and Berra, Kathy and Bushnell, Cheryl and Dolor, Rowena J. and Ganiats, Theodore G. and Gomes, Antoinette S. and Gornik, Heather L. and Gracia, Clarissa and Gulati, Martha and Haan, Constance K. and Judelson, Debra R. and Keenan, Nora and Kelepouris, Ellie and Michos, Erin D. and Newby, L. Kristin and Oparil, Suzanne and Ouyang, Pamela and Oz, Mehmet C and Diana Petitti, Diana and Pinn, Vivian W. and Redberg, Rita F. and Scott, Rosalyn and Sherif, Katherine and Smith, Sidney C. and Sopko, George and Steinhorn, Robin H. and Stone, Neil J. and Taubert, Kathryn A.. and Todd, Barbara A. and Urbina, Elaine and Wenger, Nanette K. (2007) Evidence-Based Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Women: 2007 Update. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 49 (11). pp. 1230-1250.


Worldwide, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest single cause of death among women, accounting for one third of all deaths. In many countries, including the United States, more women than men die every year of CVD, a fact largely unknown by physicians. The public health impact of CVD in women is not related solely to the mortality rate, given that advances in science and medicine allow many women to survive heart disease. For example, in the United States, 38.2 million women (34%) are living with CVD, and the population at risk is even larger. In China, a country with a population of approximately 1.3 billion, the age-standardized prevalence rates of dyslipidemia and hypertension in women 35 to 74 years of age are 53% and 25%, respectively, which underscores the enormity of CVD as a global health issue and the need for prevention of risk factors in the first place. As life expectancy continues to increase and economies become more industrialized, the burden of CVD on women and the global economy will continue to increase.