Automating NISQ Application Design with Meta Quantum Circuits with Constraints (MQCC)

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Haowei Deng, Yuxiang Peng, Michael Hicks, and Xiaodi Wu. 2023. Automating NISQ Application Design with Meta Quantum Circuits with Constraints (MQCC). ACM Trans. Quantum Comput. 4, 3, Article 16 (April 2023), 29 pages


Near-term intermediate scale quantum (NISQ) computers are likely to have very restricted hardware resources, where precisely controllable qubits are expensive, error-prone, and scarce. Programmers of such computers must therefore balance trade-offs among a large number of (potentially heterogeneous) factors specific to the targeted application and quantum hardware. To assist them, we propose Meta Quantum Circuits with Constraints (MQCC), a meta-programming framework for quantum programs. Programmers express their application as a succinct collection of normal quantum circuits stitched together by a set of (manually or automatically) added meta-level choice variables, whose values are constrained according to a programmable set of quantitative optimization criteria. MQCC’s compiler generates the appropriate constraints and solves them via an SMT solver, producing an optimized, runnable program. We showcase a few MQCC’s applications for its generality including an automatic generation of efficient error syndrome extraction schemes for fault-tolerant quantum error correction with heterogeneous qubits and an approach to writing approximate quantum Fourier transformation and quantum phase estimation that smoothly trades off accuracy and resource use. We also illustrate that MQCC can easily encode prior one-off NISQ application designs-–multi-programming (MP), crosstalk mitigation (CM)—as well as a combination of their optimization goals (i.e., a combined MP-CM).