Learning Parallel Grammar Systems for a Human Activity Language
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We have empirically discovered that the space of human actions has a linguistic structure. This is a sensory-motor space consisting of the evolution of the joint angles of the human body in movement. The space of human activity has its own phonemes, morphemes, and sentences. In kinetology, the phonology of human movement, we define atomic segments (kinetemes) that are used to compose human activity. In this paper, we present a morphological representation that explicitly contains the subset of actuators responsible for the activity, the synchronization rules modeling coordination among these actuators, and the motion pattern performed by each participating actuator. We model a human action with a novel formal grammar system, named Parallel Synchronous Grammar System (PSGS), adapted from Parallel Communicating Grammar Systems (PCGS). We propose a heuristic PArallel Learning (PAL) algorithm for the automatic inference of a PSGS. Our algorithm is used in the learning of human activity. Instead of a sequence of sentences, the input is a single string for each actuator in the body. The algorithm infers the components of the grammar system as a subset of actuators, a CFG grammar for the language of each component, and synchronization rules. Our framework is evaluated with synthetic data and real motion data from a large scale motion capture database containing around 200 different actions corresponding to verbs associated with voluntary observable movement. On synthetic data, our algorithm achieves 100% success rate with a noise level up to 7%.