A Comparison of Self-Reported Energy Intake With Total Energy Expenditure Estimated by Accelerometer and Basal Metabolic Rate in African-American Women With Type 2 Diabetes
Samuel-Hodge, C. D.
Fernandez, L. M.
Henriquez-Roldan, C. F.
Johnston, L. F.
Keyserling, T. C.
Samuel-Hodge, C. D. and Fernandez, L. M. and Henriquez-Roldan, C. F. and Johnston, L. F. and Keyserling, T. C. (2004) A Comparison of Self-Reported Energy Intake With Total Energy Expenditure Estimated by Accelerometer and Basal Metabolic Rate in African-American Women With Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 27 (3). pp. 663-669.
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OBJECTIVE—This study assesses the validity of dietary data from African-American women with type 2 diabetes by comparing reported energy intake (EI) with total energy expenditure (TEE) estimated by an accelerometer and basal metabolic rate (BMR). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—EI of 200 African-American women was assessed by three telephone-administered 24-h diet recalls using a multiple-pass approach. Physical activity was measured over a 7-day period by accelerometer, which also provided an estimate of TEE. Underreporting of EI was determined by using cutoffs for EI-to-TEE and EI-to-BMR ratios. RESULTS—Participants, on average, were 59 years of age, with a BMI of 35.7, 10.5 years of diagnosed diabetes, and 10.7 years of education. Mean EI was 1,299 kcal/day; mean EI-to-TEE and EI-to-BMR ratios were 0.65 and 0.88, respectively. Among the 185 subjects with complete dietary data, 81% (n = 150) were classified as energy underreporters using the EI-to-TEE ratio cutoff; 58% (n = 107) were classified as energy underreporters using the EI-to-BMR ratio. Energy underreporters had significantly lower reported fat, higher protein, but similar carbohydrate intakes compared with non-underreporters. The EI-to-TEE ratio was not significantly associated with any demographic variables or following a diet for diabetes, but it was inversely associated with BMI (r = −0.37, P < 0.0001). In a multivariate model, demographic variables, BMI, and following a diet for diabetes explained 16% of the variance in the EI-to-TEE ratio, with the latter two variables being the only significant predictors (inversely associated). CONCLUSIONS—Widespread energy underreporting among this group of overweight African-American women with type 2 diabetes severely compromised the validity of self-reported dietary data.