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Dynamic Spectrum Allocation and Sharing in Cognitive Cooperative Networks
Liu, K. J. Ray
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The dramatic increase of service quality and channel capacity in wireless networks is severely limited by the scarcity of energy and bandwidth, which are the two fundamental resources for communications. New communications and networking paradigms such as cooperative communication and cognitive radio networks emerged in recent years that can intelligently and efficiently utilize these scarce resources. With the development of these new techniques, how to design efficient spectrum allocation and sharing schemes becomes very important, due to the challenges brought by the new techniques. In this dissertation we have investigated several critical issues in spectrum allocation and sharing and address these challenges. Due to limited network resources in a multiuser radio environment, a particular user may try to exploit the resources for self-enrichment, which in turn may prompt other users to behave the same way. In addition, cognitive users are able to make intelligent decisions on spectrum usage and communication parameters based on the sensed spectrum dynamics and other users' decisions. Thus, it is important to analyze the intelligent behavior and complicated interactions of cognitive users via game-theoretic approaches. Moreover, the radio environment is highly dynamic, subject to shadowing/fading, user mobility in space/frequency domains, traffic variations, and etc. Such dynamics brings a lot of overhead when users try to optimize system performance through information exchange in real-time. Hence, statistical modeling of spectrum variations becomes essential in order to achieve near-optimal solutions on average. In this dissertation, we first study a stochastic modeling approach for dynamic spectrum access. Since the radio spectrum environment is highly dynamic, we model the traffic variations in dynamic spectrum access using continuous-time Markov chains that characterizes future traffic patterns, and optimize access probabilities to reduce performance degradation due to co-channel interference. Second, we propose an evolutionary game framework for cooperative spectrum sensing with selfish users, and develop the optimal collaboration strategy that has better performance than fully cooperating strategy. Further, we study user cooperation enforcement for cooperative networks with selfish users. We model the optimal relay selection and power control problem as a Stackelberg game, and consider the joint benefits of source nodes as buyers and relay nodes as sellers. The proposed scheme achieves the same performance compared to traditional centralized optimization while reducing the signaling overhead. Finally, we investigate possible attacks on cooperative spectrum sensing under the evolutionary sensing game framework, and analyze their damage both theoretically and by simulations.