TRACING SULFUR SOURCES IN AN ARCHEAN HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEM USING SULFUR MULTIPLE ISOTOPES - A CASE STUDY FROM THE KIDD CREEK VOLCANOGENIC MASSIVE SULFIDE DEPOSIT
Jamieson, John William
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Mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes in the Archean atmosphere resulted in surface sulfur reservoirs with distinct isotopic signatures. These signatures are used to trace the movement of sulfur through an Archean seafloor hydrothermal system associated with the Kidd Creek volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit. Isotopic measurements of sulfides from the 2.7 Ga Kidd Creek VMS deposit reflect two separate sulfur sources for ore precipitation. Subseafloor ore has a predominantly juvenile sulfur source. with a small (~3%) component of seawater sulfate, which was transported through the hydrothermal system to the site of precipitation. Surface sulfides contain a significant proportion of sulfur that was stripped from coeval seawater sulfate or native sulfur at the site of precipitation. Mass-independent isotopic signatures are also used in a sulfur multiple-isotope framework to evaluate isotopic disequilibrium and to assess the suitability of mineral pairs for paleothermometric calculations in the Kidd Creek VMS deposit.