REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL WITHIN THE LANDSCAPE: A SPATIALLY-EXPLICIT, AGENT-BASED MODEL OF ASYNCHRONY
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Reproductive asynchrony, which can be a beneficial life-history strategy in healthy insect populations, may contribute to an Allee effect at small population densities. A spatially explicit, agent-based model is used to investigate quantitative effects of asynchrony on reproductive potential. Temporal and spatial isolation effects are treated independently and together. Three behaviors are explored: clustered emergence from host plants, hilltopping, and mating discretion by females. The magnitude of the reduction in overall spatial overlap within the simulated population is shown to be governed by the radius of circular, random-walk movement and potential interaction distance. Hilltopping behavior and clustered emergence partially alleviate detrimental effects of spatial isolation; female selectivity in mating can exacerbate the loss of reproductive potential. Among these three behaviors, hilltopping produced the largest differential in spatial/temporal overlap.