Temporal Trends of and Influence of Storage Methods on Concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Limed Municipal Wastewater Biosolids
Armstrong, Dana Lynne
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Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a classification of anthropogenic chemicals used in a variety of consumer and industrial products. Compounds from two PFAS subgroups, perflurocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) are known to be persistent and have been detected in environmental and biotic samples worldwide. While long-chain PFCAs and PFSAs have been in a phase-out process within the United States and some have been regulated in Europe, these compounds have continued to be produced in developing countries. The sustained use of PFCA and PFSA compounds in consumer products, as well as the ability of some PFASs to degrade into these compounds, has led to their presence in the wastewater treatment (WWT) process. This study analyzes archived limed biosolids from a municipal WWT plant for temporal trends of 8 PFCAs and 4 PFSAs over an eight year period. This study also compares storage methods to determine influence on PFCA concentrations.