Chaotic Oscillations in CMOS Integrated Circuits
Lathrop, Daniel P
Rodgers, John C
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Chaos is a purely mathematical term, describing a signal that is aperiodic and sensitive to initial conditions, but deterministic. Yet, engineers usually see it as an undesirable effect to be avoided in electronics. The first part of the dissertation deals with chaotic oscillation in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuits (CMOS ICs) as an effect behavior due to high power microwave or directed electromagnetic energy source. When the circuit is exposed to external electromagnetic sources, it has long been conjectured that spurious oscillation is generated in the circuits. In the first part of this work, we experimentally and numerically demonstrate that these spurious oscillations, or out-of-band oscillations are in fact chaotic oscillations. In the second part of the thesis, we exploit a CMOS chaotic oscillator in building a cryptographic source, a random number generator. We first demonstrate the presence of chaotic oscillation in standard CMOS circuits. At radio frequencies, ordinary digital circuits can show unexpected nonlinear responses. We evaluate a CMOS inverter coupled with electrostatic discharging (ESD) protection circuits, designed with 0.5 μm CMOS technology, for their chaotic oscillations. As the circuit is driven by a direct radio frequency injection, it exhibits a chaotic dynamics, when the input frequency is higher than the typical maximum operating frequency of the CMOS inverter. We observe an aperiodic signal, a broadband spectrum, and various bifurcations in the experimental results. We analytically discuss the nonlinear physical effects in the given circuit : ESD diode rectification, DC bias shift due to a non-quasi static regime operation of the ESD PN-junction diode, and a nonlinear resonant feedback current path. In order to predict these chaotic dynamics, we use a transistor-based model, and compare the model's performance with the experimental results. In order to verify the presence of chaotic oscillations mathematically, we build on an ordinary differential equation model with the circuit-related nonlinearities. We then calculate the largest Lyapunov exponents to verify the chaotic dynamics. The importance of this work lies in investigating chaotic dynamics of standard CMOS ICs that has long been conjectured. In doing so, we experimentally and numerically give evidences for the presence of chaotic oscillations. We then report on a random number generator design, in which randomness derives from a Boolean chaotic oscillator, designed and fabricated as an integrated circuit. The underlying physics of the chaotic dynamics in the Boolean chaotic oscillator is given by the Boolean delay equation. According to numerical analysis of the Boolean delay equation, a single node network generates chaotic oscillations when two delay inputs are incommensurate numbers and the transition time is fast. To test this hypothesis physically, a discrete Boolean chaotic oscillator is implemented. Using a CMOS 0.5 μm process, we design and fabricate a CMOS Boolean chaotic oscillator which consists of a core chaotic oscillator and a source follower buffer. Chaotic dynamics are verified using time and frequency domain analysis, and the largest Lyapunov exponents are calculated. The measured bit sequences do make a suitable randomness source, as determined via National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard statistical tests version 2.1.