CONDUCTIVE POLYMER NANOTUBE PATCH FOR FAST AND CONTROLLED <italic>IN VIVO</italic> TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY
Nguyen, Thao Minh
Lee, Sang Bok
MetadataShow full item record
Transdermal drug delivery has created new applications for existing therapies and offered an alternative to the traditional oral route where drugs can prematurely metabolize in the liver causing adverse side effects. Opening the transdermal delivery route to large hydrophilic drugs is one of the greatest challenges due to the hydrophobicity of the skin. However, the ability to deliver hydrophilic drugs using a transdermal patch would provide a solution to problems of other delivery methods for hydrophilic drugs. The switching of conductive polymers (CP) between redox states cause simultaneous changes in the polymer charge, conductivity, and volume--properties that can all be exploited in the biomedical field of controlled drug delivery. Using the template synthesis method, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) nanotubes were synthesized electrochemically and a transdermal drug delivery patch was successfully designed and developed. In vitro and in vivo uptake and release of hydrophilic drugs were investigated. The relationship between the strength of the applied potential and rate of drug release were also investigated. Results revealed that the strength of the applied potential is proportional to the rate of drug release; therefore one can control the rate of drug release by controlling the applied potential. The <italic>in vitro</italic> studies focused on the kinetics of the drug delivery system. It was determined that the drug released mainly followed zero-order kinetics. In addition, it was determined that applying a releasing potential to the transdermal drug delivery system lead to a higher release rate constant (up to 7 times greater) over an extended period of time (~24h). In addition, over 24 hours, an average of 80% more model drug molecules were released with an applied potential than without. The <italic>in vivo</italic> study showed that the drug delivery system was capable of delivering model hydrophilic drugs molecules through the dermis layer of the skin within 30 minutes, while the control showed no visible drugs at the same depth. Most importantly, it was determined that the delivery of drugs into the blood stream was stable within 20 minutes. The functionalization of CP was also studied in order to enhance the properties and drug loading capabilities of the polymers. The co-polymerization of poly(3,4-(2-methylene)propylenedioxythiophene) (PMProDot) with polystyrene (PS) and polyvinylcarbazole (PVK) through the highly reactive methylene group was achieved. The modified PMProDot nanotubes demonstrated response times that were two times faster than without modification. The modification of PEDOT nanotubes with polydopamine, a biocompatible polymer, was also investigated and achieved. In depth characterization of functionalized CP demonstrate the ability to fine tune the properties of the polymer in order to achieve the required therapeutic drug release profile. A novel transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) was developed in this thesis to deliver hydrophilic drugs of specific doses in a fast and controlled manner. The low cost, facile fabrication, painlessness, and safety of the patch demonstrate a promising success in research, clinical, and industrial fields. Ideally, a universal transdermal system utilizing PEDOT nanotubes to controllably delivery therapeutic and imaging payloads of multiple drug molecules, irrespective of their charge or hydrophobicity, can be achieved.