CHARACTERIZATION OF LIVER X RECEPTORS IN PROSTATE CANCER CHOLESTEROL METABOLISM AND PULMONARY IMMUNE RESPONSE
Trasino, Steven E.
Lei, David K
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Liver x receptors (LXRs) are central regulators cholesterol homeostasis and the innate immune response. As modulators of inflammation and cholesterol metabolism LXRs might diminish dyslipidemia and inflammation related pathologies caused by high fat (HF) diets or obesity. There is also data demonstrating that LXRs can protect against progression of prostate cancer (PCa), but little is known about the cholesterol modulating effects of LXRs in transformed cells. The goal of this project is to characterize the cholesterol modulating properties of LXRs in two models of PCa and the anti-inflammatory properties of LXRs in swine bronchial alveolar macrophages (AMs). This project will also examine whether the anti-inflammatory and lipid lowering properties of the dietary probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei (L. casei), can interact with the LXR axis in AMs. Studies in two PCa cell lines, LNCaP and PC-3, revealed that LXR ligands regulate the LXR responsive genes, ABCA1 and ABCG1 through the LXR&beta isoform and not LXR&alpha in PC-3 cells, but only ABCG1 in LNCaP. LXR- ABCA1 mediated reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) resulted in a decrease in plasma membrane lipid raft cholesterol domains in PC-3 cells, suggesting a potential anti-cancer axis for LXR activation. Studies in LNCaP and PC-3 cells also demonstrated that soy isoflavones can activate transcriptional activation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in LNCaP and PC-3 cells through the LXR&beta isoform, but did not lead to an increase in RCT. Metabolic and anti-inflammatory studies of LXR in AM from Ossabaw pigs fed either a control (C) diet, HF, HF plus L casei (HFPB) or L. casei alone (CPB) diet revealed that AM from HF fed pigs had significantly higher concentrations of cholesteryl-esters (CE) compared with AM from control (C) diet fed pigs. Ex-vivo activation of LXR with the LXR ligand T0901317 opposed LPS mediated upregulation of IL-1&beta , IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 mRNA levels in AM from HF, HFPB and CPB fed pigs. Finally, it was observed that LPS stimulation lead to significant inhibition of LXR transcription of LXR&alpha, ABCA1, ABCG1, cholesterol 25 hydroxylase (CH25H) and PPAR&gamma in AM. This effect was abrogated by L. casei for ABCA1, CH25H and PPAR&gamma mRNA expression