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Proteomic Analysis of Human Urinary Exosomes
Gonzales, Patricia Amalia
Wang, Nam Sun
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Exosomes originate as the internal vesicles of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in cells. These small vesicles (40-100 nm) have been shown to be secreted by most cell types throughout the body. In the kidney, urinary exosomes are released to the urine by fusion of the outer membrane of the MVBs with the apical plasma membrane of renal tubular epithelia. Exosomes contain apical membrane and cytosolic proteins and can be isolated using differential centrifugation. The analysis of urinary exosomes provides a non-invasive means of acquiring information about the physiological or pathophysiological state of renal cells. The overall objective of this research was to develop methods and knowledge infrastructure for urinary proteomics. We proposed to conduct a proteomic analysis of human urinary exosomes. The first objective was to profile the proteome of human urinary exosomes using liquid chromatography-tandem spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and specialized software for identification of peptide sequences from fragmentation spectra. We unambiguously identified 1132 proteins. In addition, the phosphoproteome of human urinary exosomes was profiled using the neutral loss scanning acquisition mode of LC-MS/MS. The phosphoproteomic profiling identified 19 phosphorylation sites corresponding to 14 phosphoproteins. The second objective was to analyze urinary exosomes samples isolated from patients with genetic mutations. Polyclonal antibodies were generated to recognize epitopes on the gene products of these genetic mutations, NKCC2 and MRP4. The potential usefulness of urinary exosome analysis was demonstrated using the well-defined renal tubulopathy, Bartter syndrome type I and using the single nucleotide polymorphism in the ABCC4 gene. The third objective was to study the normal variability between proteomes of female and male urinary exosomes, and to implement a normalization method to analyze urinary exosome samples. Only 19 proteins had a 2-fold change representing 4.9% of the total number of proteins identified which shows that there is high concordance between proteomes of urinary exosomes isolated from males and females. The normalization method, timed urine collection did not correlate as expected with the intensity signal of MVB markers, TSG101 and Alix. This research shows that the proteomic analysis of human urinary exosomes can be the basis for future biomarker studies as well as physiological studies.