Direct Numerical Simulation of Non-Premixed Flame Extinction Phenomena
Trouve, Arnaud C
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Non-premixed flame extinction phenomena are relevant in a variety of com- busting environments, including but hardly limited to diesel engines, pool fires, and fire suppression scenarios. These disparate phenomena are controlled by various parameters that contain information on flame stretch, heat losses, composition of the fuel and oxidizer supply streams, etc. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) is used in the present study to provide fundamental insight on diffusion flame extinction under non-adiabatic combustion conditions. The list of DNS configurations include: (C1) counterflow laminar flames with soot formation and thermal radiation transport; (C2) coflow turbulent flames with soot formation and thermal radiation transport; (C3) counterflow laminar and turbulent flames interacting with a mist-like water spray. Configurations C1 and C2 use single-step chemistry while configuration C3 uses detailed chemistry (all cases correspond to ethylene-air combustion). Configuration C1 is also treated using large Activation Energy Asymptotics (AEA). The AEA analysis is based on a classical formulation that is extended to include thermal radiation transport with both emission and absorption effects; the analysis also includes soot dynamics. The AEA analysis provides a flame extinction criterion in the form of a critical Damköhler number criterion. The DNS results are used to test the validity of this flame extinction criterion. In configuration C1, the flame extinction occurs as a result of flame stretch or radiative cooling; a variation of configuration C1 is considered in which the oxidizer stream contains a variable amount of soot mass. In configuration C1, flame weakening occurs as a result of radiative cooling; this effect is magnified by artificially increasing the mean Planck soot absorption coefficient. In configuration C3, flame extinction occurs as a result of flame stretch and evaporative cooling. In all studied cases, the critical Damkohler number criterion successfully predicts transition to extinction; this result supports the unifying concept of a flame Damköhler number Da and the idea that different extinction phenomena may be described by a single critical value of Da.