New Sex Chromosomes in Lake Victoria Cichlid Fishes (Cichlidae: Haplochromini)
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African cichlid fishes harbor an extraordinary diversity of sex-chromosome systems. Within just one lineage, the tribe Haplochromini, at least 6 unique sex-chromosome systems have been identified. Here we focus on characterizing sex chromosomes in cichlids from the Lake Victoria basin. In Haplochromis chilotes, we identified a new ZW system associated with the white blotch color pattern, which shows substantial sequence differentiation over most of LG16, and is likely to be present in related species. In Haplochromis sauvagei, we found a coding polymorphism in amh that may be responsible for an XY system on LG23. In Pundamilia nyererei, we identified a feminizing effect of B chromosomes together with XY- and ZW-patterned differentiation on LG23. In Haplochromis latifasciatus, we identified a duplication of amh that may be present in other species of the Lake Victoria superflock. We further characterized the LG5-14 XY system in Astatotilapia burtoni and identified the oldest stratum on LG14. This species also showed ZW differentiation on LG2. Finally, we characterized an XY system on LG7 in Astatoreochromis alluaudi. This report brings the number of distinct sex-chromosome systems in haplochromine cichlids to at least 13, and highlights the dynamic evolution of sex determination and sex chromosomes in this young lineage.