EVOLUTION OF THE MICROSTRUCTURE AND VISCOPLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF MICROSCALE SAC305 SOLDER JOINTS AS A FUNCTION OF MECHANICAL FATIGUE DAMAGE
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The effect of mechanical cycling fatigue damage and isothermal aging histories on the evolution of the constitutive and fatigue responses, and microstructure of microscale SAC305 solder joints is investigated. In particular, the study examines if joint dependent behavior should be expected from as-fabricated and cycled microscale SAC305 joints that exhibit an initial non-homogenous coarse-grained Sn microstructure. In addition, the ability of traditionally used macroscale constitutive models based on continuum mechanics to represent the viscoplastic constitutive behavior of the non-homogenous as-fabricated microscale SAC305 specimens is explored. Insights into the effect of key microstructural features and dominant creep mechanisms influencing the measured viscoplastic behavior of SAC305 are provided using a multi-scale mechanistic modeling framework.
Modified lap-shear microscale SAC305 specimens are characterized using the thermomechanical microscale test setup (TMM). Microscale SAC305 solder specimens show significant piece-to-piece variability in the viscoplastic constitutive properties under identical loading histories in the as-fabricated state. The mechanical response is strongly influenced by the grain microstructure across the entire joint, which is non-repeatable and comprises of very few highly anisotropic Sn grains. The statistical non-homogeneity in the microstructure and the associated variability in the mechanical properties in the microscale SAC305 test specimen are far more significant than in similar Sn37Pb specimens, and are consistent with those reported for functional microelectronics solder interconnects. In spite of the scatter, as-fabricated SAC305 specimens exhibit superior creep-resistance (and lower stress relaxation) than Sn37Pb.
Macroscale creep model constants represent the non-homogeneous behavior of microscale joints in an average sense. Macroscale modeling results show that the range of scatter measured from macroscale creep model constants is within the range of scatter obtained from the stress relaxation predictions. Stress relaxation predictions are strongly sensitive to the inclusion or exclusion of primary creep models.
The proposed multiscale framework effectively captures the dominant creep deformation mechanisms and the influence of key microstructural features on the measured secondary creep response of microscale as-fabricated SAC305 solder specimens. The multiscale model predictions for the effect of alloy composition on SAC solders provide good agreement with test measurements. The multiscale model can be extended to understand the effects of other parameters such as aging and manufacturing profiles, thereby aiding in the effective design and optimization of the viscoplastic behavior of SAC alloys.
Accumulated fatigue damage and isothermal aging are found to degrade the constitutive and mechanical fatigue properties of the solder. The scatter gradually decreases with an increasing state of solder damage. Compared to the elastic-plastic and creep measurements, the variability in the fatigue life of these non-homogenous solder joints under mechanical fatigue tests is negligible.
Recrystallization is evident under creep and mechanical fatigue loads. Gradual homogenization of the Sn grain microstructure with damage is a possible reason for the observed evolution of scatter in the isothermal mechanical fatigue curves. The yield stress measurements suggest that SAC305 obeys a hardening rule different from that of isotropic or kinematic hardening. The measured degradation in elastic, plastic and yield properties is captured reasonably well with a continuum damage mechanics model from the literature.