Channel Codes That Exploit the Residual Redundancy in CELP- Encoded Speech
Fuja, Tom E.
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We consider the problem of reliably transmitting CELP-encoded speech over noisy communication channels. Our objective is to design efficient coding/decoding schemes for the transmission of the CELP line spectral parameters (LSP's) over very noisy channels.<P>We begin by quantifying the amount of ﲲesidual redundancy inherent in the LSP's of Federal Standard 1016 CELP. This is done by modeling the LSP's as first and second-order Markov chains. Two models for LSP generation are proposed; the first model characterizes the intra-frame correlation exhibited by the LSP's, while the second model captures both intra-frame and inter-frame correlation. By comparing the entropy rates of the models thus constructed with the CELP rates, it is shown that as many as one-third of the LSP bits in every frame of speech are redundant.<P>We next consider methods by which this residual redundancy can be exploited by an appropriately designed channel decoder. Before transmission, the LSP's are encoded with a forward error control (FEC) code; we consider both block (Reed- Solomon) codes and convolutional codes. Soft-decision decoders that exploit the residual redundancy in the LSP's are implemented assuming additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and independent Rayleigh fading environments. Simulation results employing binary phaseshift keying (BPSK) indicate coding gains of 2 to 5 dB over soft-decision decoders that do not exploit the residual redundancy.