Channel Codes That Exploit the Residual Redundancy in CELP- Encoded Speech
Fuja, Tom E.
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We consider the problem of reliably transmitting CELP-encoded speech over noisy communication channels. Our objective is to design efficient coding/decoding schemes for the transmission of the CELP line spectral parameters (LSP's) over very noisy channels.<P>We begin by quantifying the amount of ﲲesidual redundancy inherent in the LSP's of Federal Standard 1016 CELP. This is done by modeling the LSP's as first-and second-order Markov chains. Two models for LSP generation are proposed; the first model characterizes the intra-frame correlation exhibited by the LSP's, while the second model captures both intra-frame and inter-frame correlation. By comparing the entropy rates of the models thus constructed with the CELP rates, it is shown that as many as one-third of the LSP bits in every frame of speech are redundant.<P>We next consider methods by which this residual redundancy can be exploited by an appropriately designed channel decoder. Before transmission, the LSP's are encoded with a forward error control (FEC) code; we consider both (Reed-Solomon) codes and convolutional codes. Soft-decision decoders that exploit the residual redundancy in the LSP's are implemented assuming additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and independent Rayleigh fading environments. Simulation results employing binary phase-shifting keying (BPSK) indicate coding gains of 2 to 5 dB over soft-decision decoders that do not exploit the residual redundancy.