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Racial and Sex Differences between Urinary Phthalates and Metabolic Syndrome among U.S. Adults: NHANES 2005–2014

dc.contributor.authorGhosh, Rajrupa
dc.contributor.authorHaque, Mefruz
dc.contributor.authorTurner, Paul C.
dc.contributor.authorCruz-Cano, Raul
dc.contributor.authorDallal, Cher M.
dc.date.accessioned2022-06-10T16:11:51Z
dc.date.available2022-06-10T16:11:51Z
dc.date.issued2021-06-26
dc.identifierhttps://doi.org/10.13016/sjmy-68x7
dc.identifier.citationGhosh, R.; Haque, M.; Turner, P.C.; Cruz-Cano, R.; Dallal, C.M. Racial and Sex Differences between Urinary Phthalates and Metabolic Syndrome among U.S. Adults: NHANES 2005–2014. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6870.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/28662
dc.descriptionPartial funding for Open Access provided by the UMD Libraries' Open Access Publishing Fund.
dc.description.abstractPhthalates, plasticizers ubiquitous in household and personal care products, have been associated with metabolic disturbances. Despite the noted racial differences in phthalate exposure and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), it remains unclear whether associations between phthalate metabolites and MetS vary by race and sex. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among 10,017 adults from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2005–2014). Prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the association between 11 urinary phthalate metabolites and MetS using weighted sex and race stratified multivariable logistic regression. Higher MCOP levels were significantly associated with increased odds of MetS among women but not men, and only remained significant among White women (POR Q4 vs. Q1 = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.29; p-trend = 0.001). Similarly, the inverse association observed with MEHP among women, persisted among White women only (POR Q4 vs. Q1 = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.80; p-trend = 0.003). However, SDEHP metabolites were associated with increased odds of MetS only among men, and this finding was limited to White men (POR Q4 vs. Q1 = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.35; p-trend = 0.06). Among Black men, an inverse association was observed with higher MEP levels (POR Q4 vs. Q1 = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.77; p-trend = 0.01). The findings suggest differential associations between phthalate metabolites and MetS by sex and race/ethnicity.en_US
dc.description.urihttps://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136870
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherMDPIen_US
dc.subjectphthalatesen_US
dc.subjectmetabolic syndrome (MetS)en_US
dc.subjectraceen_US
dc.subjectsexen_US
dc.titleRacial and Sex Differences between Urinary Phthalates and Metabolic Syndrome among U.S. Adults: NHANES 2005–2014en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.relation.isAvailableAtEpidemiology & Biostatistics
dc.relation.isAvailableAtSchool of Public Health
dc.relation.isAvailableAtDigital Repository at the University of Maryland (DRUM)
dc.relation.isAvailableAtUniversity of Maryland (College Park, MD)


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