Kinesin-2 and kinesin-9 have atypical functions during ciliogenesis in the male gametophyte of Marsilea vestita
Tomei, Erika J.
Wolniak, Stephen M.
Tomei, E.J., Wolniak, S.M. Kinesin-2 and kinesin-9 have atypical functions during ciliogenesis in the male gametophyte of Marsilea vestita . BMC Cell Biol 17, 29 (2016).
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Spermatogenesis in the semi-aquatic fern, Marsilea vestita, is a rapid, synchronous process that is initiated when dry microspores are placed in water. Development is post-transcriptionally driven and can be divided into two phases. The first phase consists of nine mitotic division cycles that produce 7 sterile cells and 32 spermatids. During the second phase, each spermatid differentiates into a corkscrew-shaped motile spermatozoid with ~140 cilia. Analysis of the transcriptome from the male gametophyte of Marsilea revealed that one kinesin-2 (MvKinesin-2) and two kinesin-9 s (MvKinesin-9A and MvKinesin-9B) are present during spermatid differentiation and ciliogenesis. RNAi knockdowns show that MvKinesin-2 is required for mitosis and cytokinesis in spermatogenous cells. Without MvKinesin-2, most spermatozoids contain two or more coiled microtubule ribbons with attached cilia and very large cell bodies. MvKinesin-9A is required for the correct placement of basal bodies along the organelle coil. Knockdowns of MvKinesin-9A have basal bodies and cilia that are irregularly positioned. Spermatozoid swimming behavior in MvKinesin-2 and -9A knockdowns is altered because of defects in axonemal placement or ciliogenesis. MvKinesin-2 knockdowns only quiver in place while MvKinesin-9A knockdowns swim erratically compared to controls. In contrast, spermatozoids produced after the silencing of MvKinesin-9B exhibit normal morphology and swimming behavior, though development is slower than normal for these gametes. Our results show that MvKinesin-2 and MvKinesin-9A are required for ciliogenesis and motility in the Marsilea male gametophyte; however, these kinesins display atypical roles during these processes. MvKinesin-2 is required for cytokinesis, a role not typically associated with this protein, as well as for ciliogenesis during rapid development and MvKinesin-9A is needed for the correct orientation of basal bodies. Our results are the first to investigate the kinesin-linked mechanisms that regulate ciliogenesis in a land plant.