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Ecomorphological divergence and habitat lability in the context of robust patterns of modularity in the cichlid feeding apparatus

dc.contributor.authorConith, Andrew J.
dc.contributor.authorKidd, Michael R.
dc.contributor.authorKocher, Thomas D.
dc.contributor.authorAlbertson, R. Craig
dc.date.accessioned2021-03-12T15:58:46Z
dc.date.available2021-03-12T15:58:46Z
dc.date.issued2020-08-25
dc.identifierhttps://doi.org/10.13016/vnj6-af3e
dc.identifier.citationConith, A.J., Kidd, M.R., Kocher, T.D. et al. Ecomorphological divergence and habitat lability in the context of robust patterns of modularity in the cichlid feeding apparatus. BMC Evol Biol 20, 95 (2020).en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1903/26922
dc.description.abstractAdaptive radiations are characterized by extreme and/or iterative phenotypic divergence; however, such variation does not accumulate evenly across an organism. Instead, it is often partitioned into sub-units, or modules, which can differentially respond to selection. While it is recognized that changing the pattern of modularity or the strength of covariation (integration) can influence the range or rate of morphological evolution, the relationship between shape variation and covariation remains unclear. For example, it is possible that rapid phenotypic change requires concomitant changes to the underlying covariance structure. Alternatively, repeated shifts between phenotypic states may be facilitated by a conserved covariance structure. Distinguishing between these scenarios will contribute to a better understanding of the factors that shape biodiversity. Here, we explore these questions using a diverse Lake Malawi cichlid species complex, Tropheops, that appears to partition habitat by depth. We construct a phylogeny of Tropheops populations and use 3D geometric morphometrics to assess the shape of four bones involved in feeding (mandible, pharyngeal jaw, maxilla, pre-maxilla) in populations that inhabit deep versus shallow habitats. We next test numerous modularity hypotheses to understand whether fish at different depths are characterized by conserved or divergent patterns of modularity. We further examine rates of morphological evolution and disparity between habitats and among modules. Finally, we raise a single Tropheops species in environments mimicking deep or shallow habitats to discover whether plasticity can replicate the pattern of morphology, disparity, or modularity observed in natural populations. Our data support the hypothesis that conserved patterns of modularity permit the evolution of divergent morphologies and may facilitate the repeated transitions between habitats. In addition, we find the lab-reared populations replicate many trends in the natural populations, which suggests that plasticity may be an important force in initiating depth transitions, priming the feeding apparatus for evolutionary change.en_US
dc.description.urihttps://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-020-01648-x
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherSpringer Natureen_US
dc.subjectCichliden_US
dc.subjectMorphometricsen_US
dc.subjectModularityen_US
dc.subjectIntegrationen_US
dc.subjectMorphological evolutionen_US
dc.titleEcomorphological divergence and habitat lability in the context of robust patterns of modularity in the cichlid feeding apparatusen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.relation.isAvailableAtCollege of Computer, Mathematical & Physical Sciencesen_us
dc.relation.isAvailableAtDigital Repository at the University of Marylanden_us
dc.relation.isAvailableAtBiologyen_us
dc.relation.isAvailableAtUniversity of Maryland (College Park, MD)en_us


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