Social class, race/ethnicity, and incidence of breast, cervix, colon, lung, and prostate cancer among Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White residents of the San Francisco Bay Area, 1988-92 (United States).
Krieger, N and Quesenberry, C and Peng, T and Horn-Ross, P and Stewart, S and Brown, S and Swallen, K and Guillermo, T and Suh, D and Alvarez-Martinez, L and Ward, F (1999) Social class, race/ethnicity, and incidence of breast, cervix, colon, lung, and prostate cancer among Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White residents of the San Francisco Bay Area, 1988-92 (United States). Cancer causes & control : CCC, 10 (6). pp. 525-637.
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Background: To date only eight US studies have simultaneously examined cancer incidence in relation to social class and race/ethnicity; all but one included only black and white Americans. To address gaps in knowledge we thus investigated socioeconomic gradients in cancer incidence among four mutually exclusive US racial/ethnic groups – Asian and Pacific Islander, black, Hispanic, and white – for five major cancer sites: breast, cervix, colon, lung, and prostate cancer. Methods: We generated age-adjusted cancer incidence rates stratified by socioeconomic position using: (a) geocoded cancer registry records, (b) census population counts, and (c) 1990 census block-group socioeconomic measures. Cases (n=70,899) were diagnosed between 1988 and 1992 and lived in seven counties located in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Results: Incidence rates varied as much if not more by socioeconomic position than by race/ethnicity, and for each site the magnitude – and in some cases direction – of the socioeconomic gradient differed by race/ethnicity and, where applicable, by gender. Breast cancer incidence increased with affluence only among Hispanic women. Incidence of cervical cancer increased with socioeconomic deprivation among all four racial/ethnic groups, with trends strongest among white women. Lung cancer incidence increased with socioeconomic deprivation among all but Hispanics, for whom incidence increased with affluence. Colon and prostate cancer incidence were inconsistently associated with socioeconomic position. Conclusions: These complex patterns defy easy generalization and illustrate why US cancer data should be stratified by socioeconomic position, along with race/ethnicity and gender, so as to improve cancer surveillance, research, and control.