FROM THIRD FIDDLE TO CENTER STAGE: HOW LIONEL TERTIS, MAURICE VIEUX, AND FYODOR DRUZHININ EXPANDED THE ROLE OF THE VIOLA IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
Rokosny, Dana Marie
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Not until the turn of the twentieth century did the role of the viola begin to expand and eventually blossom into the prominence that it occupies today. Violists today enjoy the same idolizing attention that violinists and cellists have enjoyed for a few hundred years. Three violists are particularly important in the advancement of the viola during the twentieth century: Lionel Tertis (1876–1975), Maurice Vieux (1884–1951), and Fyodor Druzhinin (1932–2007). All contributed in expanding the role of the viola in the areas of virtuosity, pedagogy, and repertoire. This dissertation explores the significance of these three violists and provides a pathway to sources available relative to each artist. The performance aspect of this project included three recitals, each centered upon one of the three violists. Works included were selected from those dedicated to and/or commissioned by that violist, and works each violist composed or arranged for the instrument. The recital based upon Lionel Tertis included a movement from Ralph Vaughan Williams’ Suite; The River and the Old Irish Air composed and arranged by Tertis respectively; the Sonata for viola and piano by Sir Arnold Bax; a piece by William Henry Reed; a movement from York Bowen’s viola concerto; and Benjamin Dale’s work for six violas. The next was based upon the French violist, Maurice Vieux. The first half consisted of a Romance by Gabriel Grovlez; a concert étude by Vieux; a movement by Joseph Jongen’s for viola and orchestra; and the Ballade by Philippe Gaubert. The second half continued the character with a programmatic work by Stan Golestan; Max Bruch’s Romanze; another of Vieux’s études; and the Soliloque et Forlane by Reynaldo Hahn. The final recital centered upon Fyodor Druzhinin, a violist and composer for whom the revered Shostakovich Sonata was written; performed on the second half of this program. The first half consisted of Grigori Frid’s first viola sonata and a duo for violas by Druzhinin. The appendices include the three recital programs; discographies; articles or books written by or about these three violists; as well as lists of compositions; arrangements; and commissions and dedications.