Multi-modal Active Authentication of Smartphone Users
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With the increasing usage of smartphones not only as communication devices but also as the port of entry for a wide variety of user accounts at different information sensitivity levels, the need for hassle-free authentication is on the rise. Going beyond the traditional one-time authentication concept, active authentication (AA) schemes are emerging which authenticates users periodically in the background without the need for any user interaction. The purpose of this research is to explore different aspects of the AA problem and develop viable solutions by extracting unique biometric traits of the user from the wide variety of usage data obtained from Smartphone sensors. The key aspects of our research are the development of different components of user verification algorithms based on (a) face images from the front camera and (b) data from modalities other than the face. Since generic face detection algorithms do not perform very well in the mobile domain due to a significant presence of occluded and partially visible faces, we propose facial segment-based face detection technique to handle the challenge of partial faces in the mobile domain. We have developed three increasingly accurate proposal-based face detection methods, namely Facial Segment-based Face Detector (FSFD), SegFace and DeepSegFace, respectively, which perform binary classification on the results of a novel proposal generator that utilizes facial segments to obtain face-proposals. We also propose the Deep Regression-based User Image Detector (DRUID) network which shifts from the classification to the regression paradigm to avoid the need for proposal generation and thereby, achieves better processing speed and accuracy. DeepSegFace and DRUID have unique network architectures with customized loss functions and utilize a novel data augmentation scheme to train on a relatively small amount of data. The proposed methods, especially DRUID show superior performance over other state-of-the-art face detectors in terms of precision-recall and ROC curve on two mobile face datasets. We extended the concept of facial-segments to facial attribute detection for partially visible faces, a topic rarely addressed in the literature. We developed a deep convolutional neural network-based method named Segment-wise, Partial, Localized Inference in Training Facial Attribute Classification Ensembles (SPLITFACE) to detect attributes reliably from partially occluded faces. Taking several facial segments and the full face as input, SPLITFACE takes a data-driven approach to determine which attributes are localized in which facial segments. The unique architecture of the network allows each attribute to be predicted by multiple segments, which permits the implementation of committee machine techniques for combining local and global decisions to boost performance. Our evaluations on the full CelebA and LFWA datasets and their modified partial-visibility versions show that SPLITFACE significantly outperforms other recent attribute detection methods, especially for partial faces and for cross-domain experiments. We also explored the potentials of two less popular modalities namely, location history and application-usage, for active authentication. Aiming to discover the pattern of life of a user, we processed the location traces into separate state space models for each user and developed the Marginally Smoothed Hidden Markov Model (MSHMM) algorithm to authenticate the current user based on the most recent sequence of observations. The method takes into consideration the sparsity of the available data, the transition phases between states, the timing information and also the unforeseen states. We looked deeper into the impact of unforeseen and unknown states in another research work where we evaluated the feasibility of application usage behavior of the users as a potential solution to the active authentication problem. Our experiments show that it is essential to take unforeseen states into account when designing an authentication system with sparse data and marginal-smoothing techniques are very useful in this regard. We conclude this dissertation with the description of some ongoing efforts and future directions of research related the topics discussed in addition to a summary of all the contributions and impacts of this research work.