Sparse Representations and Feature Learning for Image Set Classification and Correspondence Estimation
Fathy, Mohammed E.
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The use of effective features is a key component in solving many computer vision tasks including, but not limited to, image (set) classification and correspondence estimation. Many research directions have focused on finding good features for the task under consideration, traditionally by hand crafting and recently by machine learning. In our work, we present algorithms for feature extraction and sparse representation for the classification of image sets. In addition, we present an approach for deep metric learning for correspondence estimation. We start by benchmarking various image set classification methods on a mobile video dataset that we have collected and made public. The videos were acquired under three different ambient conditions to capture the type of variations caused by the 'mobility' of the devices. An inspection of these videos reveals a combination of favorable and challenging properties unique to smartphone face videos. Besides mobility, the dataset has other challenges including partial faces, occasional pose changes, blur and fiducial point localization errors. Based on the evaluation, the recognition rates drop dramatically when enrollment and test videos come from different sessions. We then present Bayesian Representation-based Classification (BRC), an approach based on sparse Bayesian regression and subspace clustering for image set classification. A Bayesian statistical framework is used to compare BRC with similar existing approaches such as Collaborative Representation-based Classification (CRC) and Sparse Representation-based Classification (SRC), where it is shown that BRC employs precision hyperpriors that are more non-informative than those of CRC/SRC. Furthermore, we present a robust probe image set handling strategy that balances the trade-off between efficiency and accuracy. Experiments on three datasets illustrate the effectiveness of our algorithm compared to state-of-the-art set-based methods. We then propose to represent image sets as a dictionaries of hand-crafted descriptors based on Symmetric Positive Definite (SPD) matrices that are more robust to local deformations and fiducial point location errors. We then learn a tangent map for transforming the SPD matrix logarithms into a lower-dimensional Log-Euclidean space such that the transformed gallery atoms adhere to a more discriminative subspace structure. A query image set is then classified by first mapping its SPD descriptors into the computed Log-Euclidean tangent space and then using the sparse representation over the tangent space to decide a label for the image set. Experiments on four public datasets show that representation-based classification based on the proposed features outperforms many state-of-the-art methods. We then present Nonlinear Subspace Feature Enhancement (NSFE), an approach for nonlinearly embedding image sets into a space where they adhere to a more discriminative subspace structure. We describe how the structured loss function of NSFE can be optimized in a batch-by-batch fashion by a two-step alternating algorithm. The algorithm makes very few assumptions about the form of the embedding to be learned and is compatible with stochastic gradient descent and back-propagation. We evaluate NSFE with different types of input features and nonlinear embeddings and show that NSFE compares favorably to state-of-the-art image set classification methods. Finally, we propose a hierarchical approach for deep metric learning and descriptor matching for the task of point correspondence estimation. Our idea is motivated by the observation that existing metric learning approaches based on supervising and matching with only the deepest layer result in features that are suboptimal in some aspects to shallower features. Instead, the best matching performance, as we empirically show, is obtained by combining the high invariance of deeper features with the geometric sensitivity and higher precision of shallower features. We compare our method to state-of-the-art networks as well as fusion baselines inspired from existing semantic segmentation networks and empirically show that our method is more accurate and better suited to correspondence estimation.