Optimization-based Robustness and Stabilization in Decentralized Control
Rotkowitz, Michael C
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This dissertation pertains to the stabilization, robustness, and optimization of Finite Dimensional Linear Time Invariant (FDLTI) decentralized control systems. We study these concepts for FDLTI systems subject to decentralizations that emerge from imposing sparsity constraints on the controller. While these concepts are well-understood in absence of an information structure, they continue to raise fundamental interesting questions regarding an optimal controller, or on suitable notions of robustness in presence of information structures. Two notions of stabilizability with respect to decentralized controllers are considered. First, the seminal result of Wang & Davison in 1973 regarding internal stabilizability of perfectly decentralized system and its connection to the decentralized fixed-modes of the plant is revisited. This seminal result would be generalized to any arbitrary sparsity-induced information structure by providing an inductive proof that verifies and shows that those mode of the plant that are fixed with respect to the static controllers would remain fixed with respect to the dynamic ones. A constructive proof is also provided to show that one can move any non-fixed mode of the plant to any arbitrary location within desired accuracy provided that they remain symmetric in the complex plane. A synthesizing algorithm would then be derived from the inductive proof. A second stronger notion of stability referred to as "non-overshooting stability" is then addressed. A key property called "feedthrough consistency" is derived, that when satisfied, makes extension of the centralized results to the decentralized case possible. Synthesis of decentralized controllers to optimize an H_Infinity norm for model-matching problems is considered next. This model-matching problem corresponds to an infinite-dimensional convex optimization problem. We study a finite-dimensional parametrization, and show that once the poles are chosen for this parametrization, the remaining problem of coefficient optimization can be cast as a semidefinite program (SDP). We further demonstrate how to use first-order methods when the SDP is too large or when a first-order method is otherwise desired. This leaves the remaining choice of poles, for which we develop and discuss several methods to better select the most effective poles among many candidates, and to systematically improve their location using convex optimization techniques. Controllability of LTI systems with decentralized controllers is then studied. Whether an LTI system is controllable (by LTI controllers) with respect to a given information structure can be determined by testing for fixed modes, but this gives a binary answer with no information about robustness. Measures have already been developed to determine how far a system is from having a fixed mode when one considers complex or real perturbations to the state-space matrices. These measures involve intractable minimizations of a non-convex singular value over a power-set, and hence cannot be computed except for the smallest of the plants. We replace these problem by equivalent optimization problems that involve a binary vector rather than the power-set minimization and prove their equality. Approximate forms are also provided that would upper bound the original metrics, and enable us to utilize MINLP techniques to derive scalable upper bounds. We also show that we can formulate lower bounds for these measures as polynomial optimization problems,and then use sum-of-squares methods to obtain a sequence of SDPs, whose solutions would lower bound these metrics.