Genotypic diversity of Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. plurivora in Maryland’s nurseries and Mid-Atlantic forests
Phytopathology, 2017, 107:769-776, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-05-16-0215-R
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Genetic diversity of two Phytophthora spp.—P. cinnamomi (102 isolates), commonly encountered in Maryland nurseries and forests in the MidAtlantic United States, and P. plurivora (186 isolates), a species common in nurseries—was characterized using amplified fragment length polymorphism. Expected heterozygosity and other indices suggested a lower level of diversity among P. cinnamomi than P. plurivora isolates. Hierarchical clustering showed P. cinnamomi isolates separated into four clusters, and two of the largest clusters were closely related, containing 80% of the isolates. In contrast, P. plurivora isolates separated into six clusters, one of which included approximately 40% of the isolates. P. plurivora isolates recovered from the environment (e.g., soil and water) were genotypically more diverse than those found causing lesions. For both species, isolate origin (forest versus nursery or among nurseries) was a significant factor of heterozygosity. Clonal groups existed within P. cinnamomi and P. plurivora and included isolates from both forest and nurseries, suggesting that a pathway from nurseries to forests or vice versa exists.