IMPROVED SATELLITE MICROWAVE RETRIEVALS AND THEIR INCORPORATION INTO A SIMPLIFIED 4D-VAR VORTEX INITIALIZATION USING ADJOINT TECHNIQUES
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Microwave instruments provide unique radiance measurements for observing surface properties and vertical atmosphere profiles in almost all weather conditions except for heavy precipitation. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) observes radiation emitted by Earth at window channels, which helps to retrieve surface and column integrated geophysical variables. However, observations at some X- and K-band channels are susceptible to interference by television signals transmitted from geostationary satellites when AMSR2 is scanning regions including the U.S. and Europe, which is referred to as Television Frequency Interference (TFI). It is found that high reflectivity over the ocean surface is favorable for the television signals to be reflected back to space. When the angle between the Earth scene vector and the reflected signal vector is small enough, the reflected TV signals will enter AMSR2’s antenna. As a consequence, TFI will introduce erroneous information to retrieved geophysical products if not detected. This study proposes a TFI correction algorithm for observations over ocean. Microwave imagers are mostly for observing surface or column-integrated properties. In order to have vertical temperature profiles of the atmosphere, a study focusing on the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is included. A traditional AMSU-A temperature retrieval algorithm is modified to remove the scan biases in the temperature retrieval and to include only those ATMS sounding channels that are correlated with the atmospheric temperatures on the pressure level of the retrieval. The warm core structures derived for Hurricane Sandy when it moved from the tropics to the mid-latitudes are examined. Significant improvements have been obtained for the forecasts of hurricane track, but not intensity, especially during the first 6-12 hours. In this study, a simplified four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) vortex initialization model is developed to assimilate the geophysical products retrieved from the observations of both microwave imagers and microwave temperature sounders. The goal is to generate more realistic initial vortices than the bogus vortices currently incorporated in the Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting (HWRF) model in order to improve hurricane intensity forecasts. The case included in this study is Hurricane Gaston (2016). The numerical results show that the satellite geophysical products have a desirable impact on the structure of the initialized vortex.