Development of the ASTM E681 Standard
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ASHRAE 34, based on ASTM E681, was improved by identifying and rectifying deficiencies in ASTM E681. An ASTM E681 apparatus and procedure was developed with gaseous refrigerant testing in mind. The plumbing was improved by ensuring that the pressure readings could be constantly monitored while decreasing leakage potential. An original electrical system was designed and constructed for the ignition system. Additionally, a control panel was constructed to isolate hazardous electrical elements, and facilitate the testing, while simultaneously organizing the critical plumbing and ignition components. 3D printing efficiently produced heat-resistant, nonreactive, and structurally stable lower electrode spacers, propellers, and propeller bars. The heating system was designed to ensure even temperature throughout the apparatus. The humidity system was designed to accurately condition the air. Recommendations to improve ASTM E681 are provided. The research can be built on to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of ASTM E681.