Refresh Matters: Energy and Performance Analysis of Large Last-Level Cache Built with Gain Cell Embedded DRAM
Embedded dynamic random access memories (eDRAMs) have high density and low leakage futures, making them suitable for implementing large last-level caches (L3Cs). However, refresh operations are required, which negatively impact the power and performance. This article investigates the impact of refresh on energy and performance of eDRAM-based L3Cs. Experiments show that refresh has minor impact on system performance but continues to be the primary source of eDRAM-based L3C energy consumption.