Design of Beam Steering Electronic Circuits for Medical Applications
Safar, Mohammad A A A
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This thesis deals with the theory and design of a hemispherical antenna array circuit that is capable to operate in the intermediate zones. By doing that, this array can be used in Hyperthermia Treatment for Brain Cancer in which the aim is to noninvasively focus the fields at microwave frequencies to the location of the tumor cells in the brain. Another possible application of the array is to offer an alternative means of sustaining Deep Brain Stimulation other than using the traditional (surgical) approach. The new noninvasive technique is accomplished by the use of a hemispherical antenna array placed on the human's head. The array uses a new beamforming technique that achieves 3 dimensional beamforming or focusing of the magnetic field of antennas to desired points in the brain to achieve either cell death by temperature rise (Hyperthermia Application) or to cause brain stimulation and hopefully alleviate the affects of Parkinson's Disease (Deep Brain Stimulation). The main obstacle in this design was that the far field approximation that is usually used when designing antenna arrays does not apply in this case since the hemispherical array is in close proximity to where the magnetic field is desired to be focused. The antenna array problem is approached as a boundary-valued problem with the human head being modeled as a three layered hemisphere. The exact expressions for electromagnetic fields are derived. Health issues such as electric field exposure and specific absorption rate (SAR) are considered. After developing the main antenna and beamforming theory, a neural network is designed to accomplish the beamforming technique used. The radio-frequency (RF) transmitter was designed to transmit the fields at a frequency of 1.8 GHz. The antenna array can also be used as a receiver. The antenna and beamforming theory is presented. A new reception technique is shown which enables the array to receive multiple magnetic field sources from within the hemispherical surface. The receiver is designed to operate at 500 kHz with the RF receiver circuit designed to receive any signal from within the hemispherical surface at a frequency of 500 kHz.